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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

1. Introduction One outstanding goal of atmospheric research is the improvement of the skill of weather forecast models. Particularly critical is the prediction of precipitation and related extreme events. Only optimized models with well-specified performance can be applied to study the predictability of these meteorological situations. Corresponding research is the subject of several ongoing projects of the World Weather Research Program (WWRP) such as The Observing System Research and

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Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, and Allen B. White

1. Introduction The depth of the atmosphere’s turbulent planetary boundary layer (PBL) is well recognized as an important parameter for air quality monitoring and prediction studies, as well as for the evaluation of numerical weather prediction models. One potential method to routinely monitor the dynamically defined PBL depths uses high-resolution wind-profiling radars, as the maximum value of the radar-derived refractive index parameter C 2 n (which usually emerges at the inversion due to

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Danny E. Scipión, Phillip B. Chilson, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Robert D. Palmer

refractive index n at point ( x , y ), which does not match any of the grid points, and n xiyj denotes refractive index values at x i , y j ; i , j = 0, 1. This modification, along with the average over two consecutive layers, constitutes a significant refinement from the work of MSW99 ; it yields where n 1 , n , and n 2 represent the refractive index at levels z + Δ z , z , and z − Δ z , respectively, as depicted in the right-hand side of Fig. 2 . A sample vertical profile

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