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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

regulation of severe weather hazard type by parent convective mode (e.g., supercells have greater tornado/large hail threat; MCSs have greater damaging winds/flash flooding threat; Trapp et al. 2005 ; Dial et al. 2010 ; Smith et al. 2012 ), it is vitally important to understand how terrain may impact what convective mode(s) is (are) favored in a given environment. Our central research question is: How do terrain induced modifications to a given supercell/MCS background environment affect deep

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Russ S. Schumacher, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

-season rainfall in SSA ( Nesbitt et al. 2006 ; Rasmussen et al. 2016 ). MCSs are also responsible for the regional maximum in high impact weather such as significant hail (≥2.5-cm diameter), flooding, damaging straight-line winds, and tornadoes that are detrimental to society and the economy of the La Plata basin where agriculture thrives ( Rasmussen and Houze 2011 ; Matsudo and Salio 2011 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Rasmussen et al. 2014 ; Bruick et al. 2019 ). A typical pattern for the initiation of

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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

1. Introduction Incorrect forecasts of the specific timing and location of the initiation of deep moist convection in operational models are a major factor limiting the predictability of severe weather, hydrology, and accuracy of quantitative precipitation forecasting (e.g., Davis et al. 2003 ; Weisman et al. 2008 ; Duda and Gallus 2013 ). Operational predictability of deep moist convection initiation (CI) is limited by a number of factors, including our ability to routinely sample

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

1. Introduction In a broad sense, the literature defines drylines as airmass boundaries characterized by a sharp horizontal contrast in the low-level humidity fields ( Owen 1966 ; Schaefer 1974 ). Those that form over the Great Plains of the United States are the most widely studied and are considered as a preferential zone for convection initiation ( Wilson and Roberts 2006 ) which can lead, under favorable conditions, to severe weather events ( Lin 2007 ). Drylines are also found in other

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