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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

1. Introduction The importance of soil moisture in the global climate system has recently been underlined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Programme endorsing soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). It is a crucial variable for numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate projections because it plays a key role in hydrological processes. A good representation of soil moisture conditions can therefore help improve the forecasting of precipitation, droughts, and

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Susan Frankenstein, Maria Stevens, and Constance Scott

1. Introduction a. Mobility modeling Having to move people and supplies both on and off roads in any weather is not a new problem. Formal investigations of military ground vehicle mobility problems began during World War II as a result of vehicle immobilization in soft soil ( Rula and Nuttall 1971 ). During the 1950s and 1960s, in addition to tire–ground interaction, slope, obstacles, and driver reaction were incorporated into mobility predictions. Rula and Nuttall (1971) compared 10 off

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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

our experiment, we assume easily managed and easily understood normally distributed errors, applied in the context of (1) ; our results must be considered in light of this simplifying assumption. We note that in applying the soil moisture errors, final soil moisture values were naturally constrained to lie within realistic bounds. While this may modify slightly the effective values of ɛ used, these slight modifications are implicitly accounted for in our plots, which will show streamflow forecast

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