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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

-surface circulation of the global ocean and to provide SST and sea level pressure data. These data are important for calibration and validation of satellite-derived SST datasets (e.g., Zhang et al. 2009 ) and for numerical weather prediction ( Centurioni et al. 2017 ; Horányi et al. 2017 ). Drifters were released at the edge of a mesoscale cyclonic eddy and across a strong salinity and density front ( Figs. 1a,b ). With the goal of resolving motions over a wide range of length scales, we deployed drifters such

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

every day for the years 1998–2012, with prescribed NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) weekly SSTs and sea ice ( Reynolds et al. 2002 ). Initial atmospheric state variables (horizontal velocities, temperature, specific humidity, and surface pressure) are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereinafter ERA-Int; Dee et al. 2011 ). The initialization procedure is described in Ma et al. (2015) . Based on the results in Ma et al. (2013

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA5; Copernicus Climate Change Service 2017 ). ERA5 has 31-km horizontal resolution at a 1-hourly time scale. RAMS interpolates ERA5 to the simulation horizontal and vertical grid spacing. Lateral and top boundary nudging of the variables listed above, except for soil moisture and temperature, is applied using ERA5 with a 15-min time scale for the outermost 50 grid points for the lateral boundary nudging and the top 5 km of the model for the top boundary nudging

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