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Martin Aleksandrov Ivanov, Jürg Luterbacher, and Sven Kotlarski

calculation of the CCS ( Buser et al. 2009 ; Gobiet et al. 2015 ), therefore the CCS is also biased. The purpose of this paper is to provide more evidence to support the hypothesis that the CCS modification due to bias correction is a desirable consequence of removing model biases. To this end, we derive and test a systematic analytical theory of the effect of bias correction on the CCS. The theory allows a quantitative analysis of the CCS modification and can serve as a tool to efficiently and

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Johanna C. Speirs, Daniel F. Steinhoff, Hamish A. McGowan, David H. Bromwich, and Andrew J. Monaghan

1. Introduction Foehn winds result from topographic modification of flow in the lee of mountain barriers. They are a climatological feature common to many of the world’s midlatitude mountainous regions, where they can be responsible for wind gusts exceeding 50 m s −1 ( Brinkmann 1971 ; McGowan and Sturman 1996a ) and warming at foehn onset of +28°C ( Math 1934 ). Intensive monitoring experiments in midlatitude regions such as the Alpine Experiment (ALPEX) ( Kuettner 1986 ; Seibert 1990 ) and

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Merja H. Tölle, Steven Engler, and Hans-Jürgen Panitz

more vulnerable ( IPCC 2012 ), owing to weather extremes as described in other parts of this paper. The term “vulnerability” is used frequently in science and politics. Therefore, it is important to define it accurately. We follow the definition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC 2012 ) !because it connects natural and social sciences. IPCC (2012) defines vulnerability “as the propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Such predisposition constitutes an internal

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Jianjun Yin, Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Ming Zhao, and Laure Zanna

. The longer response time scale at NE is likely due to the slower baroclinic processes in the higher latitudes associated with the modification of ocean density properties under CO 2 forcing. As for weather processes in a warming climate, CM4 simulates an increase in the strength (i.e., based on the maximum sustained wind and central pressure) of strong TCs/hurricanes over the North Atlantic, and a decrease in the annual count of all TCs after 100 years in 1pctCO 2 ( Figs. 14a,c ) ( Knutson et al

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Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

-day conditions relating to rainfallrates, time of rain, and durations were constructed for each day of rain. The resulting three summer rainfallconditions are being used to guide applications of water onto agricultural test plots (protected from naturalrains) to measure crop yield effects from weather modification but the approach and system could serve otherapplications like effects of climate change.1. Introduction Detailed climatologically based reconstructions ofsummer rainfall conditions were desired

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Lars Gerlitz, Eva Steirou, Christoph Schneider, Vincent Moron, Sergiy Vorogushyn, and Bruno Merz

variability of the cold season climate in central Asia by means of an automatic weather classification approach. Eight weather types (WTs) were identified and investigated with regard to their tropical and extratropical drivers and their near-surface climate expression. Anomalously moist WTs were shown to be associated with the formation of a Rossby trough over central Asia, which triggers a southward shift of the westerly jet stream and an intensification of westerly moisture advection into the target

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Megan S. Mallard, Gary M. Lackmann, Anantha Aiyyer, and Kevin Hill

enhanced vertical wind shear or upper-tropospheric warming can offset this effect (e.g., Vecchi and Soden 2007 ; Hill and Lackmann 2011 ). Therefore, an advantageous approach is to simplify the problem by examining thermodynamic factors separately from the dynamical effects of climate change. The objective of this two-part study is to use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a downscaling experiment to better understand the impact of end-of-the-century changes in temperature and

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Lisan Yu, Robert A. Weller, and Bomin Sun

turbulent heat fluxes are usually estimated using a bulk algorithm that requires the knowledge of surface meteorological variables, such as near-surface wind speed, air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface specific humidity, and surface saturation humidity (e.g., Liu et al. 1979 ). Those flux-related variables are usually obtained from one of three sources: marine surface weather reports from Voluntary Observing Ships (VOSs), satellite remote sensing, and outputs of numerical weather prediction

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Aaron Donohoe, Eliza Dawson, Lynn McMurdie, David S. Battisti, and Andy Rhines

on the large-scale patterns of ASYM. More recently, Dodds et al. (2016) analyzed the timing of minimum and maximum temperatures at weather stations in the United States as well as trends in the seasonal timing over the duration of the observational record. The purpose of this manuscript is threefold: 1) to present a comprehensive global analysis of the climatological ASYM from historic station observations; 2) to establish that the ASYM in observations is captured in the ERA-Interim product and

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Gonéri Le Cozannet, Sophie Lecacheux, Etienne Delvallee, Nicolas Desramaut, Carlos Oliveros, and Rodrigo Pedreros

various teleconnection patterns are presented in section 3 and discussed in section 4 . In section 5 , the results are summarized and their ability to answer the questions raised in the introduction is discussed. 2. Data and methods a. Wave data This study uses the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ), where the winds at 10 m above sea level were used to model sea-wave parameters from September 1958 to August 2002 ( Sterl and

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