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Jesse Winchester, Rezaul Mahmood, William Rodgers, Faisal Hossain, Eric Rappin, Joshua Durkee, and Themis Chronis

1. Introduction and background Land-use land-cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in modulating weather and climate at all spatiotemporal scales ( Pielke et al. 2011 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). Relationships between land cover and the atmosphere have been well studied in terms of their influence on weather and climate ( Halldin et al. 1999 ; Narisma et al. 2003 ; Schneider and Eugster 2005 ; Adegoke et al. 2007 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ). Observational data have revealed the strong

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L. S. Rose, J. A. Stallins, and M. L. Bentley

1. Introduction Land-use conversion is an agent of weather and climate modification ( Pielke 2002 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ). Urban areas are recognized for their propensity to alter convective activity ( Changnon et al. 1971 ; Huff and Changnon 1973 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ). Conversion of forested and agricultural land to urban and suburban cover has been associated with the development of urban heat islands ( Oke 1973 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Grimmond 2007 ; Yow 2007 ), changes in rainfall

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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2012 ) points to the effects of large dams on changing the extreme precipitation patterns such as probable maximum precipitation (PMP). The probable maximum flood (PMF), which is an important factor for hydraulic design of dams, is dependent on PMP and the hydrology of the watershed. A key driver for modification of PMP and PMF during the postdam phase is the land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns that are both sensitive to mesoscale weather and surface

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Daniel M. Brown, Gerhard W. Reuter, and Thomas K. Flesch

emissions of SO X and NO X could cause acid rain, which would acidify lakes downwind. The scale of the land disturbance led us to wonder whether the oil sands could also cause inadvertent weather modification. Inadvertent weather modification due to changes in land cover has been studied extensively. “Urban heat island” is a term used to describe how urban environments cause warmer temperatures in the city center than in the surrounding rural areas. Oke ( Oke 1982 ) found that the magnitude of an

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Daniel Brown and Gerhard Reuter

with the cooler air aloft ( Strong 1986 ). A capping inversion causes thunderstorm initiation to be very sensitive to disturbances in the boundary layer known as triggers ( Strong 1986 ). Some possible triggers could include land-cover variations, frontal surfaces, or topographical features. The extensive literature on inadvertent weather modification suggests that land surface disturbances associated with urban areas can enhance convection and increase rainfall, although there have been some

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K. Dimitriou, G. R. McGregor, P. A. Kassomenos, and A. K. Paschalidou

). Nevertheless, although the relative risk of mortality during extreme temperature events appears to have fallen in northern Europe, such events still pose a threat to public health ( Morabito et al. 2012 ; Scarborough et al. 2012 ; Astrom et al. 2013 ), primarily for the most sensitive groups of people like the elderly ( Hajat et al. 2007 ; Xu et al. 2013 ). Associations between cold weather and elevated mortality are widely recognized in the international literature ( Keatinge 2002 ). For example, for

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

on the atmospheric process per se have been relatively better studied (see Cotton and Pielke 2007 for a comprehensive review). At a minimum, there can be a spatial shift and storm modification in rainfall patterns due to the presence of artificial reservoirs and their associated LULC change ( Woldemichael et al. 2012 ). Most of the time, the modification is in the form of an increase, resulting in a corresponding increase in peak flow ( Gross and Moglen 2007 ). The recurrence interval and

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Christine Wiedinmyer, Michael Barlage, Mukul Tewari, and Fei Chen

al. 2005 ; Amiro et al. 2006 ; Randerson et al. 2006 ; Myhre et al. 2005 ). The importance of these impacts is highlighted by Running ( Running 2008 ), who emphasizes the need to include land-cover disturbances, such as fire and forest dieback, in climate models to adequately account for changes in surface characteristics and carbon fluxes. The modification of physical land surface properties by disturbances can alter the surface–atmosphere exchanges of heat, water, and momentum and ultimately

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J. Marshall Shepherd and Steven J. Burian

islands also have measurable impacts on weather and climate processes. The UHI has been documented in the literature to affect local and regional temperature distributions ( Hafner and Kidder, 1999 ), wind patterns ( Hjemfelt, 1982 ), and air quality ( Quattrochi et al., 1998 ). The UHI may also impact the global water cycle through the development of clouds and precipitation in and around cities. Several observational and climatological studies have theorized that the UHI can have a significant

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Kirk Zmijewski and Richard Becker

then dried up again roughly 1600 years before present ( Boomer et al. 2000 ). Before 1960, the Aral Sea level had remained stable for over 150 years, only varying by less than 4 m ( Boomer et al. 2000 ). Soviet programs to grow cotton were implemented in the mid-twentieth century in the region. There have been significant modifications made to the natural system via canals, irrigation ditches, and reservoirs over the past half century. Soviet scientists knew shrinkage of the Aral Sea was a

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