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Alfred J. Kalyanapu, A. K. M. Azad Hossain, Jinwoo Kim, Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and C. K. Shum

et al. 2011 ; Hossain et al. 2012 ) points to the effects of large dams on changing the extreme precipitation patterns such as probable maximum precipitation (PMP). The probable maximum flood (PMF), which is an important factor for hydraulic design of dams, is dependent on PMP and the hydrology of the watershed. A key driver for modification of PMP and PMF during the postdam phase is the land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns that are both sensitive to mesoscale weather and surface

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

on the atmospheric process per se have been relatively better studied (see Cotton and Pielke 2007 for a comprehensive review). At a minimum, there can be a spatial shift and storm modification in rainfall patterns due to the presence of artificial reservoirs and their associated LULC change ( Woldemichael et al. 2012 ). Most of the time, the modification is in the form of an increase, resulting in a corresponding increase in peak flow ( Gross and Moglen 2007 ). The recurrence interval and

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

, it represents the main river natural park in Sicily and, on the other hand, its water resources supply different users. Therefore, the need arises to guarantee an appropriate balance between in-stream water uses, such as ecosystem maintenance and hydropower generation, and water withdrawals, which are essential for socioeconomic development of the area, also in view of possible modification in water resources availability due to climate change. In addition, since hydropower generation through run

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