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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

1. Introduction Two-thirds of the global rainfall amount falls within the tropics, which makes the measurement of tropical rainfall very important in understanding the weather and climate (e.g., Simpson et al. 1988 ). The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997 marked a new era in precipitation retrievals from space. TRMM carries two major instruments dedicated to rain retrievals: the multichannel microwave radiometer [TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI)] and the

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Takuji Kubota, Shinta Seto, Masaki Satoh, Tomoe Nasuno, Toshio Iguchi, Takeshi Masaki, John M. Kwiatkowski, and Riko Oki

atmospheric simulations and observational data have been utilized in previous works. The 2A25 algorithm for the TRMM PR assumed the attenuation by CLWC based on the result of a numerical simulation of storms with a cloud-system-resolving model (CRM) ( Iguchi et al. 2009 ). The vertical distributions of cloud liquid water in each radar profile were described using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations in the GPM combined algorithm, which provides precipitation estimates using both the

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Jun Awaka, Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, Naofumi Yoshida, Tomohiko Higashiuwatoko, Takuji Kubota, and Toshio Iguchi

of Washington convective/stratiform separation method ( Steiner et al. 1995 ; Yuter and Houze 1997 ), which we will call the original H method. In practice, however, some modifications to the original H method are necessary for making the method suitable for analyzing the spaceborne radar data. First and foremost, what is examined in the H method is not Z at a constant altitude, but the maximum value of Z along a given antenna beam in a range from 1.5 km below the 0°C level to the lowest

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Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Mark Kulie, Nai-Yu Wang, Ralph Ferraro, S. Joseph Munchak, and Veljko Petkovic

et al. (2010) ; only a brief review is given here for completeness. A scattering index ( Grody 1991 ; Ferraro et al. 1994 , 1998 ) is used to determine whether the pixel is raining. Once the pixel is determined to be raining, a modification from McCollum and Ferraro’s (2003) convective and stratiform percentages (CSP) within an 85-GHz pixel is developed to reduce the global TMI wet bias caused by the overly aggressive convective rain distribution. The next step is to develop the relationships

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