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Rachel Hauser

, outcomes, the functions linking actions and outcomes, and any positive and negative payoffs associated with the potential activity ( Ostrom 1999 ; Folke et al. 2005 ; SRMGI 2011 ). At this time, a governance framework does not exist either for SRM specifically or for geoengineering in general. In considering what governance might be needed to carry forward a potential geoengineering development and deployment effort, weather modification governance may offer a useful proxy, as it is a technology

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

, 2011 : Population and income sensitivity of private and public weather forecasting . Reg. Sci. Urban Econ. , 41 , 124 – 133 , doi: 10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2010.11.001 . 10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2010.11.001 Ashley , W. S. , M. L. Bentley , and J. A. Stallins , 2012 : Urban-induced thunderstorm modification in the Southeast United States . Climatic Change , 113 , 481 – 498 , doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0324-1 . 10.1007/s10584-011-0324-1 Ashley , W. S. , S. Strader , T. Rosencrants , and A. J

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Robert Drost, Mark Casteel, Julie Libarkin, Stephen Thomas, and Matt Meister

1. Introduction Severe weather warnings have traditionally been disseminated through the radio or television, with recent innovations capitalizing on the high rate of cell phone ownership. In live televised warnings, traditional elements such as weathercaster reporting, radar imagery, and warning scrolls appearing at the bottom of the television screen are typically included ( WMO 2005 ). One recent development designed to enhance the effectiveness of severe weather warnings is the addition of

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George Maier, Andrew Grundstein, Woncheol Jang, Chao Li, Luke P. Naeher, and Marshall Shepherd

western Russia caused large increases in mortality as well ( Dole et al. 2011 ), with some estimates indicating that excess mortality surpassed 15 000 ( Masters 2012 ). In many places, such as North America, extreme heat is the leading weather-related killer ( Pengelly et al. 2007 ). More people in the United States die annually from extreme heat than from hurricanes, lightning, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined ( NWS 2012 ). Several factors may increase the risk for heat-related morbidity

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Jacob R. Reed and Jason C. Senkbeil

comprehension of weather information? What modifications to the graphics resulted in positive comments? Numerous explanations are provided as answers to these questions. The methods section outlines the development and strategy behind creating the new EFGs in this study. Each graphic tested is described in its own section, with explanations of the hypothetical forecasts shown in each one. Another section of methods is devoted to discussing how the online survey was created and distributed through BMs on

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Joshua D. Eachus and Barry D. Keim

1. Introduction The urgent nature of weather messages means that swift issuance is a top priority for communicators. Immediacy can allow the time needed for life-saving decision-making. However, immediacy has also become a priority for some information sources and used as a tool to create additional streams of advertising revenue. While competition has been healthy for the advancement of technology, it has been a hindrance to the spread of information. Where a medium is a means of communication

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Ethan D. Coffel and Radley M. Horton

notes that a flight from LaGuardia (LGA) to Los Angeles (LAX) would not require a full fuel load for a Boeing 737–800 under normal weather conditions. This is true; however, our goal in this initial study was not to consider specific flights, but rather to illustrate the potential for rising temperatures to impact weight restriction. Second, Hane notes that incremental modifications to the airframe, the engines, or the software can add up to significant increases in performance. This is certainly

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Michael D. Gerst, Melissa A. Kenney, Allison E. Baer, Amanda Speciale, J. Felix Wolfinger, Jon Gottschalck, Scott Handel, Matthew Rosencrans, and David Dewitt

et al. 2016 ). For public communication, this problem often is compounded by designers not knowing which trend or pattern is of most interest, and in general, the public has a lower scientific skill level than expert users ( McMahon et al. 2015 ). These problems are particularly salient for maps of extended-range weather (i.e., 6–10 and 8–14 days) to long-lead seasonal forecasts (i.e., 3–4 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months), which add a geospatial component to scientific uncertainty. To varying

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Kevin Barjenbruch, Carol M. Werner, Randall Graham, Cody Oppermann, Glenn Blackwelder, Jeff Williams, Glen Merrill, Scott Jensen, and Justin Connolly

behavior, only individuals who drove regularly in the study area were included in the sample and the survey responses were weighted to reflect the population using recent census data. 2 d. Survey topics The primary purposes of the survey were to 1) assess the weather information that drivers possessed prior to and during a storm; 2) determine sources of weather and road information; 3) explore uses, specifically modification of travel and/or commute plans, based on event information; and 4) examine

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Yoshiro Tsutsui

1. Introduction This paper seeks to identify the effect of weather on happiness. Although economists are interested in the material factors shaping happiness, such as income ( Frey and Stutzer 2002 ; Clark et al. 2008 ), happiness is known to depend on a broader range of variables, including education, health, and personal characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, and personality ( Dolan et al. 2008 ). Climate and the natural environment also affect happiness. 1 There have been many

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