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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

weather and climate based on the National Climate Assessment ( Brown et al. 2014 ), including studies of Baker et al. (2002) , Grimmond (2007) , Hallegatte and Corfee-Morlot (2011) , and Rosenzweig et al. (2010) , etc. The majority of past studies related to the impacts of urbanization on weather have focused on temperature (e.g., Kalnay and Cai 2003 ; Hale et al. 2008 ) and precipitation (e.g., Shepherd 2005 ; Kaufmann et al. 2007 ; Kishtawal et al. 2010 ; Han et al. 2014 ; Liu and Niyogi

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

1. Introduction It has long been recognized that warm season precipitation over the central United States exhibits a nocturnal maximum ( Kincer 1916 ; Bleeker and Andre 1951 ; Means 1952 ; Pitchford and London 1962 ; Wallace 1975 ; Easterling and Robinson 1985 ; Riley et al. 1987 ; Dai et al. 1999 ; Carbone et al. 2002 ; Carbone and Tuttle 2008 ). This rainfall is beneficial for agriculture, but it is also associated with lightning, flooding, and other weather hazards ( Crysler et al

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

, several studies (e.g., Davis et al. 2003 ; Clark et al. 2007 ; Surcel et al. 2010 ) have demonstrated that advancing forecast skill in numerical weather prediction models for these nocturnal systems has proven elusive. The low skill is important, since researchers have long established that summer thunderstorms and convective precipitation are most frequent after sunset over a broad region of the Great Plains, ranging from Oklahoma to southern Manitoba, and between about 92° and 100°W ( Kincer 1916

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Shushi Zhang, David B. Parsons, and Yuan Wang

. Biggerstaff , and B. F. Smull , 1989 : Interpretation of Doppler weather radar displays of midlatitude mesoscale convective systems . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 70 , 608 – 619 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1989)070<0608:IODWRD>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1989)070<0608:IODWRD>2.0.CO;2 Jahn , D. E. , and W. A. Gallus Jr ., 2018 : Impacts of modifications to a local planetary boundary layer scheme on forecasts of the Great Plains low-level jet environment . Wea. Forecasting , 33

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Evgeni Fedorovich, Jeremy A. Gibbs, and Alan Shapiro

transport over the central United States . J. Climate , 10 , 481 – 507 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0481:IOTGPL>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0481:IOTGPL>2.0.CO;2 Hoecker , W. H. , 1963 : Three southerly low-level jet systems delineated by the Weather Bureau special pibal network of 1961 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 91 , 573 – 582 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1963)091<0573:TSLJSD>2.3.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1963)091<0573:TSLJSD>2.3.CO;2 Holton , J. R. , 1967 : The diurnal boundary layer wind

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