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David R. Ryglicki, Daniel Hodyss, and Gregory Rainwater

primarily rotational without a prominent divergent component and that the pressure anomaly caused by a modification of the tornado’s rotation was neglected. A TC possesses a large and significant divergent flow field, and this divergent flow is what is necessary to divert the environmental flow around the TC upwind. This creates an interesting paradox with regard to shear calculations used both operationally and academically. Many works have tried to remove the vortex in various ways to ascertain the

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

section 3 , followed by a statistical analysis in section 4 that confirms the findings from the idealized simulations. Conclusions are provided in section 5 . 2. Methodology a. Model configuration The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model, version 3.9.1, is used for the idealized simulations. The framework comprises three nested domains with horizontal grid spacings of 18, 6, and 2 km; and domain sizes of 10 800 km × 7200 km, 2298 km × 2298 km, and 768 × 768 km

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Benjamin C. Trabing, Michael M. Bell, and Bonnie R. Brown

(RCE), and as such the impact of upper-tropospheric temperature modification on intensity has primarily been evaluated on long time scales >100 days in RCE ( Emanuel et al. 2013 ). Ramsay (2013) analyzed the effects of colder tropopause temperatures on TC intensity using a nonhydrostatic, axisymmetric, cloud-resolving model in RCE over 120 days. Ramsay found that the maximum intensity of their 2D simulated TCs increased by 1 m s −1 K −1 cooling of the prescribed tropopause temperature and

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

vapor satellite imagery, are used to study Hurricanes Edouard (2014) and Bill (2009). The AMV images are collected from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. This study also makes use of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) data to show upper-level flow features. The horizontal grid spacing of the ERA-Interim data is about 0.7° × 0.7°, which is sufficient

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