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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

1. Introduction African easterly waves (AEWs) have been recognized as prominent weather-producing events of northern tropical Africa (e.g., Burpee 1974 ; Asnani 2005 ) and have been extensively studied from observational and modeling perspectives (e.g., Hsieh and Cook 2005 ; Kiladis et al. 2006 ). However, the development of AEWs into tropical depressions remains one of the most challenging problems in the prediction and modeling of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Investigations of tropical

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Chuntao Liu, Earle R. Williams, Edward J. Zipser, and Gary Burns

1. Introduction This study is concerned with an examination of a 10-yr satellite database from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ) toward understanding the physical origins of the global circuit of atmospheric electricity. The study is motivated by a long-standing discrepancy between two climatological representations of global circuit behavior and shown together in Fig. 1 : the Carnegie curve ( Israel 1973 ) of fair weather atmospheric electricity and the

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Zhaoxia Pu, Xuanli Li, and Juanzhen Sun

Jindo, South Korea, were assimilated for the prediction of the landfalling Typhoon Rusa (2002). A noticeable improvement in the short-range prediction of the precipitation was produced by the radar data assimilation. Zhao and Jin (2008) assimilated observations from five Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars for Hurricane Isabel (2003). With the Navy’s Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), they assimilated radar reflectivity and radial velocity data

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Edward K. Vizy and Kerry H. Cook

the National Center for Atmospheric Research–National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NCAR–NOAA) Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model (ARW-WRF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration observations taken in support of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) field campaign. Background on the conditions necessary for tropical cyclogenesis is reviewed in section 2 . Section 3 describes the regional model and the modeling approach. In section 4

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Stephen R. Guimond, Gerald M. Heymsfield, and F. Joseph Turk

was evident with the RMW contracting from ∼20 to 10 km and the maximum winds increasing to 60 m s −1 in 15 h. Axisymmetric, balanced theory shows that one effect of HTs on a TC is through modification of the vortex-scale inertial stability and a concurrent increase in the efficiency of the storm ( Shapiro and Willoughby 1982 ; Schubert and Hack 1982 ; Hack and Schubert 1986 ; Nolan et al. 2007 ). The axisymmetric, relative inertial stability ( I 2 ) can be represented as where v is

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

. Downward thermal emissions from dust were also observed to increase owing to the larger dust particle sizes ( Slingo et al. 2006 ). Haywood et al. (2005) compared the OLR from the Met Office unified operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with that determined from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument onboard Meteosat-7 . By including observation-based optical properties of mineral dust in the radiative transfer calculations, Haywood et al. suggested that dust DRE LW can be

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