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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

. The different spatial structures of the heat flux associated with different weather conditions proposed in this study highlight the basic fact that air–sea fluxes and atmospheric modification strongly depend on lateral advection that occurs during weather events. One of the important findings in this study is that the turbulent heat flux on nearly monthly time scales and its spatial distribution are closely related to the relative frequency of synoptic events. This result accentuates the

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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

and Godfrey 2003 ). Its influences on weather variability have been studied extensively. Sanders (1986) showed that the most rapid deepening bomb cyclones tend to move along the axis of the Gulf Stream. Strong ocean-to-atmosphere turbulent heat flux is observed over the Gulf Stream (e.g., Doyle and Warner 1993 ; Zolina and Gulev 2003 ). Kuo et al. (1991) and Reed et al. (1993) demonstrated that latent heat release is important in cyclogenesis using regional atmospheric models. Mesoscale

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

.1029/2009GL038271 . Page , J. , 1906 : Has the Gulf Stream any influence on the weather of New York City? Mon. Wea. Rev. , 34 , 465 . Peng , M. S. , J. A. Ridout , and T. F. Hogan , 2004 : Recent modification of the Emanuel convective scheme in the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 1254 – 1268 . Pope , C. , 1968 : Winter cyclogenesis with tropical characteristics over the Gulf Stream. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 96 , 867 – 875 . Raman , S. , and

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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

-induced modification of surface pressure gradients and reduction in turbulent mixing. The collocation of wind speed reduction and low SST becomes clear in a map of deviations from the winter climatology ( Fig. 3a ). This positive SST–wind speed correlation in space can be better seen in the spring of 2005 (not shown). Similar SST-induced wind variations are commonly observed over mesoscale SST features in different regions, such as in the western Arabian Sea ( Vecchi et al. 2004 ), and along oceanic fronts in

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO; Takata et al. 2003 ) is incorporated in CFES. In OIFES, a sea ice model is coupled with the Ocean model for the Earth Simulator (OFES; Masumoto et al. 2004 ; Sasaki et al. 2008 ), which is based on the Modular Ocean Model version 3 (MOM3; Pacanowski and Griffies 2000 ) developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) with substantial modifications added. The sea ice model is based on a model developed at the International Arctic Research Center

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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

1. Introduction Day-to-day weather variations in the extratropics are mainly caused by synoptic-scale high and low pressure systems migrating eastward. These transient eddies are important in our climate system because they systematically transport sensible heat, westerly angular momentum, and moisture from the subtropics. Fluctuations associated with those transient eddies that are typically on a time scale of several days or a week can be extracted with appropriate high-pass temporal

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

frequent passages of weather systems ( Nakamura et al. 2004 , 2008 ; Nonaka et al. 2009 ). This restoration is manifested as the positive (negative) SHF skewness on the warmer (cooler) side of the frontal zone ( Figs. 5  – 7 ). Through their analysis of high-resolution CGCM output, Nonaka et al. (2009) estimated that this restoring process through enhanced SHF associated with the passages of individual synoptic disturbances is quite efficient with a typical time scale of about 1 day. In spring

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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

configuration is given in Menemenlis et al. (2005b) and in Fox-Kemper and Menemenlis (2008) . The ECCO2 simulation spans January 1979–November 2006. Its surface boundary conditions are obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) except for precipitation, which is taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ). The ECMWF analysis ( Gibson et al. 1997 ) is used after August 2002 when the

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

with the AMO (correlation = 0.92). The second and third modes exhibit interannual variability. Note that the leading EOF of SSH in the North Atlantic also exhibits the variance concentrated along the GS ( Häkkinen and Rhines 2009 ). b. Oceanic dynamics and decadal variability Frankignoul et al. (1997) provides a theoretical framework for understanding decadal and longer time scale variability in the extratropical WBC SSTs (i.e., stochastic weather fluctuations generate ∇ × τ with a white

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Mototaka Nakamura and Shozo Yamane

The data used to calculate B are the monthly-mean temperature at 2 m above the surface ( T   2m ) and temperature at pressure levels available from the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ). We chose the ERA-40 T   2m data rather than the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis products for its explicit inclusion of the observed near-surface temperature in

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