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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant form of intraseasonal variability in Earth’s atmospheric system. Characterized by large-scale, eastward-propagating, equatorially trapped, baroclinic oscillations in the tropical wind field at periods of 30–90 days ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1994 ), the MJO has predictability time scales of 10–30 days, far beyond the usual time scales of weather prediction (e.g., Hendon et al. 2000 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ). Although the MJO

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is an intraseasonal weather phenomenon in the tropics. Because of its influence on global weather and climate ( Zhang 2005 ), understanding, simulation, and prediction of the MJO have great scientific and societal value. Modeling and prediction of MJO initiation in the Indian Ocean remains a long standing challenge. The field campaign Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year

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