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Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Keith P. Shine, Stephan Havemann, Jean-Claude Thelen, and Peter G. Hill

of RSR spectra that are computed using atmospheric and surface properties derived from A-Train satellite observations. Using this technique, the exact properties controlling the RSR spectra are known and not subject to climate model biases. Clustering has been widely used in atmospheric science, for example to identify clusters of CloudSat reflectivity profiles in the tropics ( Zhang et al. 2007 ; Young 2015 ) and to identify “weather states” using joint histograms of cloud-top height and

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Yun Hang, Alexander V. Matus, and Zhien Wang

. 1995 ; Gupta et al. 1999 ; Zhang et al. 2005 ; Loeb et al. 2009 ; Wild et al. 2013 ). Our understanding of the influence of distinct cloud types on Earth’s radiation budget continues to be advanced with new definitions of ISCCP cloud-based weather states (e.g., Jakob and Tselioudis 2003 ; Oreopoulos and Rossow 2011 ). Another approach called “cloud object analysis” categorizes similar satellite footprints in a contiguous region to examine the influence of cloud regimes on radiative budget

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Zealand downstream. Hence the change in local winds also force some modifications in surface fluxes and wind stress. Any link between ENSO-related variations in the ITF and the Tasman Sea heat waves has been generally assigned to the atmospheric bridge connections. The studies thus far have overlooked the likelihood that there is also a direct ocean connection through the changes in mass and heat transport with the ITF that indeed relate to opposite changes in the East Australian Current region

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Christopher M. Thomas, Bo Dong, and Keith Haines

1. Introduction Vertical and horizontal energy flows between Earth’s surface, atmosphere, and space play a fundamental role in establishing the large-scale atmosphere and ocean circulation patterns driving weather and climate. The water cycle is closely coupled to these energy flows due to the exchanges of latent heat that occur during evaporation/transpiration and precipitation. A wide variety of Earth observation (EO) datasets are now available, enabling different vertical components of the

Open access