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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

amplification of the ridge–trough couplet directly downstream of ET. More recent work has investigated the processes that determine downstream development following the onset of ET beyond one wavelength [see Fig. 2 and blue labels for orientation; section 3a(1) ] and identified a climatological signal of RWP development downstream of ET [ section 3a(2) ]. Furthermore, the development of high-impact weather in regions downstream of ET has been investigated more recently ( section 3b ). a. Modification of

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

addressed the following important questions: Do these local modifications exhibit a downstream impact (i.e., do they modify the propagation of RWPs)? And how important are modifications by latent heat release compared to dry dynamics? Early studies demonstrated a clear impact of latent heat release on individual weather events in the downstream region [e.g., a cyclone as in Hoskins and Berrisford (1988) , or heavy precipitation as in Massacand et al. (2001) ]. More recent studies interpreted the

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