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Walter A. Lyons

JuLY 1974 W A L T E R A. L Y O N S 503Inadvertent Weather Modification by Chicago-Northern Indiana Pollution Sources Observed by ERTS-1~ WALTER m. LYONSAir Pollution A nalysis Laboratory, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisc. 53201 (Manuscript received 2 November 1973, in

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October 1970ON THE POSSIBILITY OF WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CONTRAILS WALLACE B. MURCRAYGeophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Colleye, AlaskaABSTRACTThe possible effect of contrails in modifying the weather is reconsidered in the light of information obtained fromground-level contrails in Alaska. It appears likely that inadvertent cloud seeding by jet aircraft may be of the sameorder of magnitude as that attained in commercial cloud seeding operations. Further investigation

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Meral Demirtas and Alan J. Thorpe

. The method presented in this paper can be used to improve short-range weather forecasts. In effect the PV and WV image-based approach serves to pinpoint the location and subsynoptic-scale structure of the upper-level features. In cases where the analysis errors occur in the upper troposphere the method can lead to a significant improvement in the short-range forecast skill. Upper/low-level PV modifications emphasize the importance of upper- and low-level data for NWP. Focusing on predictability

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Tatiana G. Smirnova, John M. Brown, Stanley G. Benjamin, and Jaymes S. Kenyon

wider geographical application. These recent applications include the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) and the NOAA hourly updated Rapid Refresh (RAP; Benjamin et al. 2016 ) and High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR; Smith et al. 2008 ) models. The goal of this study is to describe and validate the modifications to the RUC LSM that are motivated by these new applications. A previous six-level version of a land surface soil–vegetation scheme ( Smirnova et al

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M. A. Giorgetta and J-J. Morcrette

's highlyparameterized radiation scheme in order to include approximately the absorption by lines with a Voigt profile.For the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts radiation scheme, a modification of the Lorentzline width provides a practical solution for this problem. Thus, the domain of this wideband radiation schemeis extended from the surface up to the mesopause.1. Introduction The profile of an absorption line originates from theuncertainty principle (natural broadening), the collisional

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S. Sethuraman

1040 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 104Air Mass Modification due to Change in Surface Characteristics~'' S. S~I~NMete.orolagy Group, Brookttaven National -aboratory, U~ton, N. Y. 11973 (Manuscript received 23 June 1975, in revised form 23 April 1976) A dmple emp/rical model is developed based on physical and dimensional considerations to predict thehe/ght of air mass modification due to a

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Julio Buchmann, Jan Paegle, Lawrence Buja, and R. E. Dickinson

responseis a simple direct consequence of the Walker cell thatpropagates eastward from the Pacific heating modifications, or whether this is a more complex responseinvolving midiatitude teleconnections and the circuc 1989 American Meteorological Society1094 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME liTlation of the North Atlantic as envisioned by Namias(1972) and Moura and Shukla

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Roderick A. Scofield

outlooks are computed on the Interactive Flash Flood Analyzer (IFFA) and transmittedvia the Automation of Field Operations and Services (AFOS) computer systems to Weather Service ForecastOffices, Weather Service Offices, and River Forecast Centers. The technique consists of two steps: (1) locatingthe active portion of the convective system and (2) computing half-hourly rainfall estimates based on cloudtop temperature and cloud growth or divergence aloft, overshooting tops, mergers, saturated

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September 1965Robert J. Renard and Leo C. Clarke547EXPERIMENTS IN NUMERICAL OBJECTIVE FRONTAL ANALYSISROBERT J. RENARD *U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif, and LEO C. CLARKEU.S. Navy Fleet Numerical Weather Facility, Monterey, Calif.ABSTRACTA major area of weather analysis still requiring manual subjective determination is that of locating fronts. Theexperiments reported on here concern an attempt to incorporate objective frontal analvsis into the operational com

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Lawrence A. Hughes

solutions are given where known. This effort is based on a long-standing extensive verification of PoP's issued by 66 offices of the National Weather Service's Central Region.Verification results were sent monthly to each office and each forecaster for the past 13 years. Someadditional problems and solutions dealing in general with verification and evaluation of PoP's arediscussed. These include modifications of scores generally used, plus factors to consider whentrying to compare scores of offices

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