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Maxi Boettcher and Heini Wernli

oceans the DRW track density field overlaps with the overall midlatitude storm track (e.g., Wernli and Schwierz 2006 ). However, the propagation of DRWs is typically more zonal, whereas most extratropical cyclone tracks are bent to the north. This is shown by, for example, Dacre and Gray (2009) for North Atlantic cyclones (their Fig. 2a), leading to an overall frequency maximum of North Atlantic cyclones between Greenland and Iceland and of North Pacific cyclones near the Aleutian Islands

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Julia H. Keller, Sarah C. Jones, and Patrick A. Harr

a favorable position for reintensification and its outflow may strongly amplify the adjacent ridge directly east of the storm. Latent heat release in ascending warm air masses ahead of the cyclone (e.g., Bosart and Lackmann 1995 ; Grams 2011 ) as well as in the frontal precipitation along the baroclinic zone ( Torn 2010 ) may strongly modulate the potential vorticity (PV) field and thus aid the ridge amplification. The sensitivity of the ET process to the phasing between the TC and the

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