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Michael A. Spall

to support the lateral eddy fluxes that balance mixing in the interior. The exchange and mixing is regulated by the ability of eddies to transport water from the boundary current into the basin interior. The primary role of the wind is to drive ice out of the Arctic Basin by piling it up against the North American continent (and the resulting Coriolis force advecting it through Fram Strait). This export of ice is important for balancing the net heat flux with the atmosphere. Calculations with no

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Ryan Abernathey and Paola Cessi

is determined by a three-term heat balance involving Ekman and eddy heat transport and the residual circulation, which in turn depends on remote processes outside the channel. Gnanadesikan (1999) put forth a model of the global ocean pycnocline with three interacting components: North Atlantic sinking, low-latitude diffusive upwelling, and a Southern Ocean component that involves both Ekman and eddy transport (see also Wolfe and Cessi 2010 ; Nikurashin and Vallis 2012 ; Shakespeare and

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