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Roxana C. Wajsowicz

climate variability. Science , 275 , 181 – 184 . Hirst , A. C. , 1986 : Unstable and damped equatorial modes in simple coupled ocean–atmosphere models. J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 606 – 630 . Hollingsworth , A. , K. Arpe , M. Tiedtke , M. Capaldo , and H. Savijärvi , 1980 : The performance of a medium range forecast model in winter—Impact of physical parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 108 , 1736 – 1773 . Horel , J. D. , and J. M. Wallace , 1981 : Planetary

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

1. Introduction Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is a system of currents flowing from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean and the only low-latitude connection between the world oceans. The ITF is the major route of fresh and warm water from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean ( Gordon and Fine 1996 ). It plays a significant role in the Indian Ocean heat budget by exchanging nearly 11 W m −2 with the atmosphere, which amounts to up to 25% of the net air–sea heat flux of the southern Indian Ocean ( Vranes

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

: positive SST anomalies in the equatorial central and eastern regions of the Pacific Ocean favor enhanced deep convection there; this leads to an increase in the release of latent heating throughout the troposphere and in the divergent flow at upper levels; subsequently, the upper-level divergence forces planetary Rossby waves that project onto the PNA pattern ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Webster 1981 ; Simmons 1982 ; Branstator 1985 ). One limitation of this conceptual scenario is the requirement

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

mixed layer is predicted using the K-profile parameterization ( Large et al. 1994 ). The eddy mixing parameterization of Gent and McWilliams (1990) as implemented by Griffies (1998) is used in the model. The atmosphere component is the GFDL atmosphere model AM2p12b ( GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team 2004 ). The model has a finite-volume dynamical core, with 24 vertical layers and 2.5° × 2° horizontal spacing. A K-profile planetary boundary layer scheme, relaxed Arakawa

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

warm state, both the atmosphere and ocean in the Indian basin have already experienced vigorous fluctuations in association with the evolution of an El Niño event. Quite early on during boreal summer of an El Niño year, the eastward shift of major equatorial convection toward the central Pacific forces an anomalous anticyclonic circulation, extending from the western Pacific to the Indian basin (e.g., Lau and Nath 2000 , 2003 ). In response, the Indian monsoon rainfall during June–August is

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