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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

surface currents of 0.8 m s −1 associated with oceanic downwelling equatorial Rossby waves ( Rydbeck et al. 2017 ). Such currents might increase the speed differential at the ocean and atmosphere interface leading to enhanced latent heat fluxes. An additional simplification of the idealized CM1 simulations is the exclusion of planetary vorticity. While omitted in these simulations, the Coriolis force modulates the low-level divergence tendency [terms v and vi of Eq. (1) ]. Moreover, large

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Deep convective structures populate the tropics, provide the energetics that drive the large-scale tropical circulation, and interact with superimposed atmospheric waves ( Riehl and Malkus 1957 ; Lorenz 1969 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1991 ; Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Chang 1995 ; Lane et al. 2001 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ) is one such disturbance, and while the MJO is commonly defined

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