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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

the changes in ozone, cloudiness, and surface albedo were dealt with in Bernhard et al. (2007) . In a comprehensive investigation by Dong et al. (2010) using 10 yr of cloud and radiative flux observations collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), it is reported that the longwave cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) has a high positive correlations (0.8–0.9) with cloud fraction, liquid water path, and radiating

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

step. Following a form similar to Trenberth (1997) , the MERRA total energy equation integrated over the atmospheric column may be written as where A E is total energy in the atmospheric column, is the horizontal transport of total atmospheric energy, R top is the downward net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), F sfc is the upwelling net surface flux, L υ is the latent heat of vaporization, L f is the latent heat of fusion, W υ is column-integrated water vapor

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

Mazloff et al. 2010 ). An outline of the paper is as follows. In section 2 we introduce the following six net air–sea flux estimates to be compared (they are all averaged over years 2005–07): NCEP1 and ERA, two flux products that use NCEP1 and ERA variables as input in state-of-the-art bulk flux algorithms to obtain turbulent heat flux which is combined with net radiative flux from NCEP1 and ERA to obtain the net heat flux, and finally the recently obtained SOSE and LY09 flux products. In section

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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

Coauthors , 2001 : Radiance and Jacovian intercomparison of radiative transfer models applied to HIRS and AMSU channels . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 24 017 – 24 031 . Gulev, S. , Jung T. , and Ruprecht E. , 2007 : Estimation of the impact of sampling errors in the VOS observations on air–sea fluxes. Part I: Uncertainties in climate means . J. Climate , 20 , 279 – 301 . Jackson, D. L. , and Wick G. A. , 2010 : Near-surface air temperature retrieval derived from AMSU-A and sea surface

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