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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

1. Introduction Because of the smaller heat capacity of soil compared to water, the amplitudes of the diurnal cycle of surface total available turbulent (latent and sensible) heat flux and skin temperature tend to be greater over land than ocean. This likely amplifies lower-atmospheric heat energy in the afternoon, which often increases buoyant force, as measured by convective available potential energy (CAPE; Pielke 2001 ). As a result, continental precipitation is most frequently observed

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

evident in maps of PM brightness temperatures, providing unambiguous retrievals of precipitation is often difficult. This is primarily because of the variability of the surface background and/or the nonunique observed spectral signatures to hydrometeor profiles and surface rainfall relationships. A greater insight into the radiometric signature may be obtained through inverse radiative transfer modeling, although such techniques are ultimately limited by the model itself and the computational

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

that alters the radiative effects of such clouds (e.g., Shupe et al. 2006 , 2013 ). Airborne radar observations have also indicated orographically induced mountain snowfall originating from fairly shallow cloud structures above ground level ( Pokharel et al. 2014 ; Geerts et al. 2015 ). Shallow snowfall occurs pervasively around the world because of a handful of possible mechanisms, but a truly global observational accounting of shallow snowfall has not been undertaken because of the dearth of

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