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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

top of the entrainment zone, that is, up to 3–4-km height in summer. Lidar also allows the observation of aerosol scattering properties throughout the PBL with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. However, for the investigation of aerosol fluxes, next to optical aerosol properties, which control the radiative impact of the aerosol particles and possible feedbacks on the wind field, microphysical parameters such as particle number and mass concentrations are of primary interest. The

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Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

; Klipp and Mahrt 2004 ; Baas et al. 2006 ). In addition, the separation of the atmospheric variables into a turbulent component and a mean or slowly variable component can be ill posed, especially for statistics such as variances and fluxes for challenging conditions such as stable boundary layers ( Kaimal and Finnigan 1994 ; Mahrt 1998 ; Vickers and Mahrt 2003 ) and larger-scale forcing such as with a density current and a frontal passage ( Piper and Lundquist 2004 ). The standard analysis

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Simon P. Alexander and Toshitaka Tsuda

et al. 1992 ), boundary layer heat fluxes ( Angevine et al. 1993 ), humidity profiles ( Furumoto and Tsuda 2001 ), fog inversions ( Bonino et al. 1981 ), and gravity waves ( Tsuda et al. 1994 ; Yamamoto et al. 1996 ). Recent experiments with the very high-frequency (VHF) middle- and upper-atmosphere (MU) radar RASS in Shigaraki, Japan (located at 34.85°N, 136.10°E; 370 m MSL), have shown fluctuations in turbulent parameters, such as the turbulent spectral width σ t and kinetic energy

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Ulrich Löhnert, S. Crewell, O. Krasnov, E. O’Connor, and H. Russchenberg

value of T is used. 4. IPT application to simulated cases In this section we would like to show the accuracy improvements achieved by including the elevation scans for the retrieval of temperature profiles. This is done on the basis of a simulation study for clear-sky situations when the strongest temperature variations are expected due to strong radiative fluxes at the surface. L07 have performed an extensive accuracy assessment of the IPT within an NWP model domain using zenith measurements

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

profiling. COST Office, Brussels, Belgium, Final Rep., in press . Gossard, E. E. , Chadwick R. B. , Neff W. D. , and Moran K. P. , 1982 : The use of ground-based Doppler radars to measure gradients, fluxes, and structure parameters in elevated layers. J. Appl. Meteor. , 21 , 211 – 226 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1982)021<0211:TUOGBD>2.0.CO;2 Gossard, E. E. , Wolfe D. E. , and Stankov B. B. , 1999 : Measurement of humidity profiles in the atmosphere by the Global Positioning System and radar

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