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Tessa R. Vance, Tas D. van Ommen, Mark A. J. Curran, Chris T. Plummer, and Andrew D. Moy

-sensitive regions of eastern Australia, are due to ENSO-related natural variability or anthropogenic climate change. To assess whether these phenomena are due to natural or anthropogenically induced variability, centennial-scale, annually resolved proxy records of ENSO are needed. The spatial signatures of individual ENSO events differ, so individual proxies can indicate varied responses to the same event. In the Pacific region, proxy records of regional climate and ENSO frequently disagree on past ENSO

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Howard J. Diamond, Andrew M. Lorrey, and James A. Renwick

the climatology ( Fig. 2 ) and the spatial patterns for each of the ENSO phases and seasons ( Figs. 3a–c ) produced anomaly plots ( Figs. 4a–c ) used to describe the effects that different ENSO phases have on TC behavior and to identify the number of storms that came within 550 km (a 5° latitude radius) of a country or island group (see Table 2 for individual country TC frequency details). Fig . 4. (a) Anomaly climatological TC contour plot (from 1970 to 2010) superposed on the regional wind

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Ailie J. E. Gallant, Steven J. Phipps, David J. Karoly, A. Brett Mullan, and Andrew M. Lorrey

effects, resulting in hemispheric or even global responses in climate. Teleconnections are responsible for a significant proportion of Australasian climate variability, defined as the region of the southwest Pacific that includes Australia and New Zealand ( Fig. 1 ). Annual and subannual fluctuations in the Australasian atmosphere and ocean state have been linked to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( McBride and Nicholls 1983 ; Gordon 1986 ; Karoly 1989 ; Drosdowsky 1993 ; Mullan 1995

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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

forcings drove changes in the global climate over this period. Orbitally driven changes in insolation were small on the global scale but could be significant on the regional scale. For example, the long-term preindustrial cooling trend at high northern latitudes can be attributed to orbital forcing ( Kaufman et al. 2009 ; Esper et al. 2012 ). Changes in solar irradiance may have been globally significant, particularly the reductions in irradiance during solar grand minima ( Steinhilber et al. 2012

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Michelle Ho, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Anthony S. Kiem, and Russell N. Drysdale

changes in MDB rainfall on a regional basis, thereby optimizing the spatial applicability of the existing paleoclimate data. Through the identification of these regions, the findings of this study will also help to direct future paleoclimate investigations to locations where the assembly of paleoclimate records will be of greatest value in understanding long-term MDB hydroclimatology. This will ultimately aid in the development of regionally specific, basinwide hydroclimatic reconstructions for the

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