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Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Xubin Zeng, Michael Bosilovich, and Chung-Lin Shie

uses a neural network to obtain wind speed ( Krasnopolsky et al. 1995 ). Specific humidity at 10 m is derived from SSM/I measurements using the updated coefficients of Bentamy et al. (2003) , and surface specific humidity is derived using the Magnus formula, as described in Murray (1967) , with a salinity correction. SST is taken from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Oceans Pathfinder SST product ( Casey et al. 2010 ). Near-surface air temperature is taken as the average of

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Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

and freeze–thaw status, with improved (<10 km) resolution over current satellite microwave remote sensing products available from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), and the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. In the Level 4 soil moisture algorithm, SMAP observations will be assimilated within a land surface data assimilation system that is being developed in the Goddard Earth Observing System

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