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Robert Wood

primarily driven by convective instability caused by cloud-top radiative cooling, a definition that distinguishes stratocumulus from stratus. Stratocumuli swathe enormous regions of Earth’s surface and exhibit a great variety of structure on a wide range of spatial scales ( Fig. 1 ). They cover approximately one-fifth of Earth’s surface in the annual mean (23% of the ocean surface and 12% of the land surface), making them the dominant cloud type by area covered ( Warren et al. 1986 , 1988 ; Hahn and

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

1. Introduction Our current knowledge of the climatology of tornadoes in Europe has been built from historical collections of tornado reports (e.g., Peltier 1840 ; Wegener 1917 ), case studies (e.g., Hepites 1887 ; Lemon et al. 2003 ), and local climatologies (e.g., Snitkovskii 1987 ; Dessens and Snow 1989 ). Unfortunately, these datasets were limited by inconsistencies in observational networks and reporting practices across Europe and have only allowed a simplified and inaccurate

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy drove a devastating storm surge in excess of 2 m into the northeastern U.S. coastline, tore down trees and power lines that left millions without electricity, and dumped over 900 mm of snow ( Blake et al. 2013 ). As Sandy approached the coast, it acquired structural characteristics consistent with both tropical and extratropical cyclones, with an intact inner–tropical cyclone (TC) warm core embedded within an expansive outer-core wind field

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T. N. Krishnamurti

--ishighlighted. The planetary boundary layer is another area of investigation which has drawn much interest, especially overthe western Arabian Sea where the Somali jet exhibits interesting properties during summer monsoon. Thesestudies cover modeling, theoretical and observational areas. The onset and active monsoons were monitored by a large array of ship and research aircraR during MONEX.Studies in this area place an empfiasis on observational, theoretical stability analysis and numerical weatherprediction

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

. 1982 ; Benjamin and Carlson 1986 ; Benjamin 1986 ; Lanicci et al. 1987 ; Sun and Wu 1992 ). Segal and Arritt (1992) showed that significant spatial heterogeneities in daytime sensible heat flux are common over land on a variety of scales. These heterogeneities can lead to thermally induced circulations due to land-use variations, contrasts in soil moisture owing to antecedent precipitation, natural landform variations, contrasts in cloudiness or contrasts in snow cover. Modeling studies have

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

; Guba et al. 2014 ). The advantages and challenges of VR weather and climate modeling have been actively studied. The consensus is that VR models can provide the benefits of high-resolution simulation inside or even outside the refined domain. The benefits include improved orographic precipitation and snow cover ( Rhoades et al. 2016 ), tropical cyclones ( Zarzycki and Jablonowski 2014 , 2015 ; Zarzycki et al. 2014a ), land-cover representation ( Medvigy et al. 2011 ), remote influence from high

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

major producers of both cloud cover and precipitation in the tropics and subtropics, the correct prediction of tropical cyclone behavior in global climate models will depend ultimately on the accuracy with which tropical cyclone clouds are represented. For these reasons, it seems appropriate to synthesize and organize the available information on the diverse cloud processes within tropical cyclones. This review presents a dynamical and physical description of the main types of clouds in a tropical

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