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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

, rain, ice, snow, and graupel. The configuration of control variables is designed to be flexible to include all or part of the prognostic variables listed above. Since the hydrometeors are directly related to the cloud and precipitation, these variables are included in the control vectors to explore the data impact on the analysis and forecasts, especially in the assimilation of precipitation observations. Since very little is known about the forecast error characteristics of the prognostic

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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

significant. This is because for these seasons, both 3B42RT and CMORPH are dominated with underestimates over CONUS, especially over higher latitudes and mountainous areas ( Tian et al. 2009 ). These underestimates are primarily caused by missed detection by satellite-based estimates over cold land surfaces such as snow and ice cover, whereas our current scheme can only correct satellite retrievals when they are detected events or false alarms. Figure 2 shows the time series of the biases before and

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

rainfall estimation on hydrologic simulation. The Ft. Cobb basin is 59% cropland according to the USGS National Land Cover Database; the second largest classification being grassland at 31% ( Homer et al. 2007 ). Soils are classified by the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service State Soil Geographic database (STATSGO) as being predominantly silt loam/loam and are considered to be deep and well drained ( Soil Survey Staff 1994 ; USDA 1994 ; Soil Survey Staff 1996 ). A 30-yr climatology of

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

snow determines the local maximum in flood peak occurrence in the northeastern United States ( Fig. 1b ), where March–April peaks account for up to 60% of annual peaks. Organized thunderstorm systems embedded in winter–spring extratropical systems, often associated with severe weather, are important flood agents in the southeastern United States ( Fig. 1b ). March–April peaks account for more than 50% of annual flood peaks in south Georgia, north Florida, and southeastern Alabama ( Fig. 1b

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