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Scott Curtis, Ahmed Salahuddin, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Guojun Gu, and Yang Hong

( Goddard and Dilley 2005 ). For each year and month the fractional coverage of the globe falling outside those percentiles, amounting to 38% of the precipitation values, was calculated (FC p0.38 ). Very arid regions were not included, namely, locations with a monthly median rainfall of zero. Next, FC p0.38 was calculated separately for the globe (67.5°N to 85°S), Northern Hemisphere extratropics (67.5° to 25°N), Southern Hemisphere extratropics (25° to 67.5°S), and Tropics (25°N to 25°S) over ocean

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

1. Introduction Driven mainly by solar heating, water is evaporated from ocean and land surfaces, transported by winds, and condensed to form clouds and precipitation that falls to land and oceans. Precipitation over land may be stored temporarily as snow or soil moisture, while excess rainfall runs off and forms streams and rivers, which discharge the freshwater into the oceans, thereby completing the global water cycle ( Fig. 1 ). Associated with this water cycle, energy, salt within the

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

temperatures over continents and warm temperatures over oceans are prominent. Atmospheric cooling indicated by air descent ( V · ∇ θ < 0) prevails in the free troposphere. Along 90°E ( Fig. 2c ), the strong cooling is over the TP and its southern slope in association with the strong heating and ascent over the equator. During summer, the warmest center of potential temperature is just over the TP. This is in agreement with the existence of the warm temperature center in July over the plateau ( Yanai et

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

-m level, and 3) spatial variation in U p is weaker compared to that in U c on all levels. In the low-Fr case, U p varies primarily in the along-ridge direction with negative (positive) values in the southern (northern) part of the ocean on all levels ( Figs. 5b,d,f ); U p develops significant spatial variations near the two mountain ranges, especially in the cross-ridge direction upstream of the Sierra Nevada. The largest value of U p occurs over the western slope of the northern

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

monthly resolution ( Huffman et al. 1997 ; Adler et al. 2003 ). A product with similar characteristics and data sources but utilizing a different approach, known as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), was developed by Xie and Arkin (1997) . Both of these products have been available since the early 1990s and the strengths of each product are well documented ( Adler et al. 2003 ; Yin et al. 2004 ). While

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

in 1988) appear in the northern-tier states (e.g., 40°N and northward), except the Northeast and the Midwest. On the other hand, negative values appear in most of the southern-tier states with weaker magnitude and mixed signals in some places. Broadly speaking, in terms of the positive–north and negative–south patterns, the Eta Model captures the observed features reasonably well ( Fig. 1b ). Closer inspection reveals that the model performs better for the regions north of 40°N than those to the

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

two-way communication domains were used (see Fig. 1 ) for the downscaling. In the two-way communication between nested domains, not only do the results in the coarser domain affect the enclosed finer domain simulation, but the finer domain results also provide feedback to influence the coarse domain simulation. Domain 1 (D1), at a 108-km grid resolution, covers the whole United States, Mexico, southern Canada, Central America, and the surrounding oceans. Domain 2 (D2) covers the western United

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

precipitation dataset used by NARR comes from different sources, including the gauge-only CPC daily precipitation analyses disaggregated into hourly analyses over the contiguous United States, Mexico, and Canada; CMAP; and CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH) over southern portions of the oceans from January 2003. Over the contiguous United States, the precipitation daily analysis used is 1/8° analysis, which is an inverse square-distance weighting scheme with an orography enhancement technique; Parameter

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