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C. G. Schmitt and A. J. Heymsfield


Representations for the surface area of ice particles in terms of the projected area have been developed using two different methods. The first method uses ice particles that are imaged in situ and geometric calculations that are based on the outline of the two-dimensional image of the particle. The second method uses computer-generated ice particle shapes and calculates the total surface area analytically. The results of the second method compare reasonably well with the results of the first method. Surface area estimates for individual particles were combined with particle size distribution and projected area measurements from the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL)–Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) field project to give total surface area estimates for observed ice particle populations. Population surface area estimates were also made from balloon-borne replicator data collected during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment, phase II (FIRE-II). A relationship between the particle population surface area and projected area (cloud extinction) has been derived. The total particle surface area for particle populations is estimated to be between 8 and 10 times the projected area or between 4 and 5 times the extinction and has a small dependence on the properties of the particle size distribution for particles observed in random orientations.

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C. G. Schmitt, J. Iaquinta, and A. J. Heymsfield


Cirrus clouds in the midlatitude and Arctic regions are often composed of bullet rosette–shaped ice crystals. Bullet rosette–shaped ice crystals are composed of a number of bullets radiating from a central point. The bullets that make up the rosette will grow to be hollow in some conditions. To understand better the radiative impact of cirrus clouds, the authors have used a ray-tracing code to calculate the scattering properties of solid and hollow bullet rosettes at visible wavelengths. Results show that hollow bullet rosettes exhibit a broader forward-scattering peak than do solid bullet rosettes. This difference results in an asymmetry parameter that is as much as 0.08 lower for hollow bullet rosettes than for solid rosettes. The effective asymmetry parameter of spheres with the same particle volume and total surface area of the bullet rosettes has also been calculated. Asymmetry parameter estimates for equivalent spheres were similar to those calculated using the ray tracing. Asymmetry parameter calculations were used in combination with direct aircraft measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program intensive operational period in March of 2000. Asymmetry parameter estimates were used with particle size distributions for three cirrus cloud flights for which the observed large particles were predominantly bullet rosettes. Calculated asymmetry parameter values (0.80–0.84) agreed poorly with published cirrus parameterizations (0.75–0.84) when applied to the same aircraft data. Differences lead to 4.5–9 W m−2 differences in reflected and transmitted visible light energy for a cloud of 0.5 optical depth.

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