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Z. Q. Fan
,
Z. Sheng
,
H. Q. Shi
,
X. H. Zhang
, and
C. J. Zhou

Abstract

Global stratospheric temperature measurement is an important field in the study of climate and weather. Dynamic and radiative coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere has been demonstrated in a number of studies over the past decade or so. However, studies of the stratosphere were hampered by a shortage of observation data before satellite technology was used in atmospheric sounding. Now, the data from the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics, and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) observations make it easier to study the stratosphere. The precision and accuracy of TIMED/SABER satellite soundings in the stratosphere are analyzed in this paper using refraction error data and temperature data obtained from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) radio occultation sounding system and TIMED/SABER temperature data between April 2006 and December 2009. The results show high detection accuracy of TIMED/SABER satellite soundings in the stratosphere. The temperature standard deviation (STDV) errors of SABER are mostly in the range from of 0–3.5 K. At 40 km the STDV error is usually less than 1 K, which means that TIMED/SABER temperature is close to the real atmospheric temperature at this height. The distributions of SABER STDV errors follow a seasonal variation: they are approximately similar in the months that belong to the same season. As the weather situation is complicated and fickle, the distribution of SABER STDV errors is most complex at the equator. The results in this paper are consistent with previous research and can provide further support for application of the SABER’s temperature data.

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Lynn M. Russell
,
Shou-Hua Zhang
,
Richard C. Flagan
,
John H. Seinfeld
,
Mark R. Stolzenburg
, and
Robert Caldow

Abstract

A radially classified aerosol detector (RCAD) for fast characterization of fine particle size distributions aboard aircraft has been designed and implemented. The measurement system includes a radial differential mobility analyzer and a high-flow, high-efficiency condensation nuclei counter based on modifications to a commercial model (TST, model 3010). Variations in pressure encountered during changes in altitude in flight are compensated by feedback control of volumetric flow rates with a damped proportional control algorithm. Sampling resolution is optimized with the use of an automated dual-bag sampling system. This new system has been tested aboard the University of Washington Cl31a research aircraft to demonstrate its in-flight performance capabilities. The system was used to make measurements of aerosol, providing observations of the spatial variability within the cloud-topped boundary layer off the coast of Monterey, California.

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Sergey Sokolovskiy
,
Zhen Zeng
,
Douglas C. Hunt
,
Jan-Peter Weiss
,
John J. Braun
,
William S. Schreiner
,
Richard A. Anthes
,
Ying-Hwa Kuo
,
Hailing Zhang
,
Donald H. Lenschow
, and
Teresa Vanhove

Abstract

Superrefraction at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer introduces problems for assimilation of radio occultation data in weather models. A method of detection of superrefraction by spectral analysis of deep radio occultation signals introduced earlier has been tested using 2 years of COSMIC-2/FORMOSAT-7 radio occultation data. Our analysis shows a significant dependence of the probability of detection of superrefraction on the signal-to-noise ratio, which results in a certain sampling nonuniformity. Despite this nonuniformity, the results are consistent with the known global distribution of superrefraction (mainly over the subtropical oceans) and show some additional features and seasonal variations. Comparisons to the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses and limited set of radiosondes show reasonable agreement. Being an independent measurement, detection of superrefraction from deep radio occultation signals is complementary to its prediction by atmospheric models and thus should be useful for assimilation of radio occultation data in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Open access