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  • Author or Editor: J. E. Kristjánsson x
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P. J. Rasch and J. E. Kristjánsson


A parameterization is introduced for the prediction of cloud water in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3). The new parameterization makes a much closer connection between the meteorological processes that determine condensate formation and the condensate amount. The parameterization removes some constraints from the simulation by allowing a substantially wider range of variation in condensate amount than in the standard CCM3 and tying the condensate amount to local physical processes. The parameterization also allows cloud drops to form prior to the onset of grid-box saturation and can require a significant length of time to convert condensate to a precipitable form, or to remove the condensate. The free parameters of the scheme were adjusted to provide reasonable agreement with top of atmosphere and surface fluxes of energy. The parameterization was evaluated by a comparison with satellite and in situ measures of liquid and ice cloud amounts. The effect of the parameterization on the model simulation was then examined by comparing long model simulations to a similar run with the standard CCM and through comparison with climatologies based upon meteorological observations.

Global ice and liquid water burdens are higher in the revised model than in the control simulation, with an accompanying increase in height of the center of mass of cloud water. Zonal averages of cloud water contents were 20%–50% lower near the surface and much higher above. The range of variation of cloud water contents is much broader in the new parameterization but was still not as large as measurements suggest. Differences in the simulation were generally small. The largest significant changes found to the simulation were seen in polar regions (winter in the Arctic and all seasons in the Antarctic). The new parameterization significantly changes the Northern Hemisphere winter distribution of cloud water and improves the simulation of temperature and cloud amount there. Small changes were introduced in the cloud fraction to improve consistency of the meteorological parameterizations and to attempt to alleviate problems in the model (in particular, in the marine stratocumulus regime). The small changes did not make any appreciable improvement to the model simulation.

The new parameterization adds significantly to the flexibility in the model and the scope of problems that can be addressed. Such a scheme is needed for a reasonable treatment of scavenging of atmospheric trace constituents, and cloud aqueous or surface chemistry. The addition of a more realistic condensate parameterization provides opportunities for a closer connection between radiative properties of the clouds, and their formation and dissipation. These processes must be treated for many problems of interest today (e.g., anthropogenic aerosol–climate interactions).

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J. E. Kristjánsson, I. Barstad, T. Aspelien, I. Føre, Ø. Godøy, Ø. Hov, E. Irvine, T. Iversen, E. Kolstad, T. E. Nordeng, H. McInnes, R. Randriamampianina, J. Reuder, Ø. Saetra, M. Shapiro, T. Spengler, and H. Ólafsson

From a weather forecasting perspective, the Arctic poses particular challenges for mainly two reasons: 1) The observational data are sparse and 2) the weather phenomena responsible for severe weather, such as polar lows, Arctic fronts, and orographic influences on airflow, are poorly resolved and described by the operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The Norwegian International Polar Year (IPY)– The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) project (2007–10) sought to significantly improve weather forecasts of these phenomena through a combined modeling and observational effort. The crux of the observational effort was a 3-week international field campaign out of northern Norway in early 2008, combining airborne and surface-based observations. The main platform of the field campaign was the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) research aircraft Falcon, equipped with lidar systems for profiling of aerosols, humidity, and wind, in addition to in situ measurements and dropsondes. A total of 12 missions were flown, yielding detailed observations of polar lows, Arctic fronts, and orographic low-level jets near Spitsbergen, the coast of northern Norway, and the east coast of Greenland. The lidar systems enabled exceptionally detailed measurements of orographic jets caused by the orography of Spitsbergen. Two major polar low developments over the Norwegian Sea were captured during the campaign. In the first polar low case, three f lights were carried out, providing a first-ever probing of the full life cycle of a polar low. Targeting observations by the aircraft in sensitive areas led to improvements in predicted track and intensity of the polar low. Here highlights from the field campaign, as well as from ongoing follow-up investigations, are presented. Highlights from the development of a new limitedarea model ensemble prediction system for the Arctic, as well as an exploitation of new satellite data [Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) data], are also included.

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I. A. Renfrew, G. W. K. Moore, J. E. Kristjánsson, H. Ólafsson, S. L. Gray, G. N. Petersen, K. Bovis, P. R. A. Brown, I. Føre, T. Haine, C. Hay, E. A. Irvine, A Lawrence, T. Ohigashi, S. Outten, R. S. Pickart, M. Shapiro, D. Sproson, R. Swinbank, A. Woolley, and S. Zhang

Greenland has a major influence on the atmospheric circulation of the North Atlantic-western European region, dictating the location and strength of mesoscale weather systems around the coastal seas of Greenland and directly influencing synoptic-scale weather systems both locally and downstream over Europe. High winds associated with the local weather systems can induce large air-sea fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum in a region that is critical to the overturning of the thermohaline circulation, and thus play a key role in controlling the coupled atmosphere-ocean climate system.

The Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment (GFDex) is investigating the role of Greenland in defining the structure and predictability of both local and downstream weather systems through a program of aircraft-based observation and numerical modeling. The GFDex observational program is centered upon an aircraft-based field campaign in February and March 2007, at the dawn of the International Polar Year. Twelve missions were flown with the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements' BAe-146, based out of the Keflavik, Iceland. These included the first aircraft-based observations of a reverse tip jet event, the first aircraft-based observations of barrier winds off of southeast Greenland, two polar mesoscale cyclones, a dramatic case of lee cyclogenesis, and several targeted observation missions into areas where additional observations were predicted to improve forecasts.

In this overview of GFDex the background, aims and objectives, and facilities and logistics are described. A summary of the campaign is provided, along with some of the highlights of the experiment.

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