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G. Sanchez, A. Serrano, M. L. Cancillo, and J. A. Garcia

Abstract

The reliable estimation of the radiative forcing and trends in radiation requires very accurate measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance at the earth’s surface. To improve measurement accuracy, error sources such as the pyranometer thermal offset should be thoroughly evaluated. This study focuses on the measurement and analysis of this effect in a widely used type of pyranometer. For this aim, a methodology based on capping the pyranometer has been used and different criteria for determining the thermal offset have been applied and compared. The thermal offset of unventilated pyranometers for global and diffuse irradiance has been measured under a wide range of cloud, ambient temperature, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Significant differences in absolute values and variability have been observed between daytime and nighttime, advising against correcting the thermal offset effect based only on nighttime values. Notable differences in the thermal offset between cloudy and cloud-free conditions have been also observed. The main results show that the ambient temperature, the radiation, and its direct/diffuse partitioning are the variables more related to the daytime thermal offset.

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Virginie Guemas, Susanna Corti, J. García-Serrano, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, Magdalena Balmaseda, and Linus Magnusson

Abstract

The Indian Ocean stands out as the region where the state-of-the-art decadal climate predictions of sea surface temperature (SST) perform the best worldwide for forecast times ranging from the second to the ninth year, according to correlation and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores. This paper investigates the reasons for this high skill by assessing the contributions from the initial conditions, greenhouse gases, solar activity, and volcanic aerosols. The comparison between the SST correlation skill in uninitialized historical simulations and hindcasts initialized from estimates of the observed climate state shows that the high Indian Ocean skill is largely explained by the varying radiative forcings, the latter finding being supported by a set of additional sensitivity experiments. The long-term warming trend is the primary contributor to the high skill, though not the only one. Volcanic aerosols bring additional skill in this region as shown by the comparison between initialized hindcasts taking into account or not the effect of volcanic stratospheric aerosols and by the drop in skill when filtering out their effect in hindcasts that take them into account. Indeed, the Indian Ocean is shown to be the region where the ratio of the internally generated over the externally forced variability is the lowest, where the amplitude of the internal variability has been estimated by removing the effect of long-term warming trend and volcanic aerosols by a multiple least squares linear regression on observed SSTs.

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Omar Bellprat, Javier García-Serrano, Neven S. Fučkar, François Massonnet, Virginie Guemas, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes
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J. García-Serrano, C. Frankignoul, G. Gastineau, and A. de la Cámara

Abstract

Satellite-derived sea ice concentration (SIC) and reanalyzed atmospheric data are used to explore the predictability of the winter Euro-Atlantic climate resulting from autumn SIC variability over the Barents–Kara Seas region (SIC/BK). The period of study is 1979/80–2012/13. Maximum covariance analyses show that the leading predictand is indistinguishable from the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The leading covariability mode between September SIC/BK and winter North Atlantic–European sea level pressure (SLP) is not significant, indicating that no empirical prediction skill can be achieved. The leading covariability mode with either October or November SIC/BK is moderately significant (significance levels <10%), and both predictor fields yield a cross-validated NAO correlation of 0.3, suggesting some empirical prediction skill of the winter NAO index, with sea ice reduction in the Barents–Kara Seas being accompanied by a negative NAO phase in winter. However, only November SIC/BK provides significant cross-validated skill of winter SLP, surface air temperature, and precipitation anomalies over the Euro-Atlantic sector, namely in southwestern Europe. Statistical analysis suggests that November SIC/BK anomalies are associated with a Rossby wave train–like anomaly across Eurasia that affects vertical wave activity modulating the stratospheric vortex strength, which is then followed by downward propagation of anomalies that impact transient-eddy activity in the upper troposphere, helping to settle and maintain the NAO-like pattern at surface. This stratospheric pathway is not detected when using October SIC/BK anomalies. Hence, only November SIC/BK, with a one-month lead time, could be considered as a potential source of regional predictability.

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Javier García-Serrano, Christophe Cassou, Hervé Douville, Alessandra Giannini, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes

Abstract

One of the most robust remote impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the teleconnection to tropical North Atlantic (TNA) sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal spring. However, important questions still remain open. In particular, the timing of the ENSO–TNA relationship lacks understanding. The three previously proposed mechanisms rely on teleconnection dynamics involving a time lag of one season with respect to the ENSO mature phase in winter, but recent results have shown that the persistence of ENSO into spring is necessary for the development of the TNA SST anomalies. Likewise, the identification of the effective atmospheric forcing in the deep TNA to drive the regional air–sea interaction is also lacking. In this manuscript a new dynamical framework to understand the ENSO–TNA teleconnection is proposed, in which a continuous atmospheric forcing is present throughout the ENSO decaying phase. Observational datasets in the satellite era, which include reliable estimates over the ocean, are used to illustrate the mechanism at play. The dynamics rely on the remote Gill-type response to the ENSO zonally compensated heat source over the Amazon basin, associated with perturbations in the Walker circulation. For El Niño conditions, the anomalous diabatic heating in the tropical Pacific is compensated by anomalous diabatic cooling, in association with negative rainfall anomalies and descending motion over northern South America. A pair of anomalous cyclonic circulations is established at upper-tropospheric levels in the tropical Atlantic straddling the equator, displaying a characteristic baroclinic structure with height. In the TNA region, the mirrored anomalous anticyclonic circulation at lower-tropospheric levels weakens the northeasterly trade winds, leading to a reduction in evaporation and of the ocean mixed layer depth, hence to positive SST anomalies. Apart from the dominance of latent heat flux anomalies in the remote response, sensible heat flux and shortwave radiation anomalies also appear to contribute. The “lagged” relationship between mature ENSO in winter and peaking TNA SSTs in spring seems to be phase locked with the seasonal cycle in both the location of the mechanism’s centers of action and regional SST variance.

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Neven S. Fučkar, François Massonnet, Virginie Guemas, Javier García-Serrano, Omar Bellprat, Mario Acosta, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes
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Juan C. Acosta Navarro, Pablo Ortega, Javier García-Serrano, Virginie Guemas, Etienne Tourigny, Rubén Cruz-García, François Massonnet, and Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes
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F. Domínguez-Castro, M. C. Gallego, J. M. Vaquero, R. García Herrera, M. Peña-Gallardo, A. El Kenawy, and S. M. Vicente-Serrano

Abstract

The weather diary of Felipe de Zúñiga y Ontiveros was recorded in Mexico City from 1775 to 1786. It is the earliest meteorological observational record of Mexico. The diary provides daily meteorological information for rain frequency, temperature, frost, hail, thunderstorms, and wind, with higher resolution than any other contemporary documentation or natural proxy from this region. The seasonal distributions of rainy days, temperature, hail, and thunderstorms correspond well with those from the Tacubaya Observatory in Mexico City (1886–2016). Two drought periods (1780/81 and 1785/86) and one wet period (1782/83) were identified. The drought spanning from 1785 to 1786 is known in the literature as “the hunger year” because it represented the most severe famine during the colonial period (1521–1821). This paper analyzes—for the first time—this event at a daily scale. Similar to the reported droughts of 1909/10 and 2010/11, 1785/86 was a very dry period. But the dry conditions of 1785 were followed by intense frosts that started in late August and continued through September and October. This combination led to the destruction of crops and subsequent famine. The duration of the frost does not have analogs during the instrumental period, probably because of the intense warming and land changes registered over the last years in the region.

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Belen Rodríguez-Fonseca, Elsa Mohino, Carlos R. Mechoso, Cyril Caminade, Michela Biasutti, Marco Gaetani, J. Garcia-Serrano, Edward K. Vizy, Kerry Cook, Yongkang Xue, Irene Polo, Teresa Losada, Leonard Druyan, Bernard Fontaine, Juergen Bader, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Lisa Goddard, Serge Janicot, Alberto Arribas, William Lau, Andrew Colman, M. Vellinga, David P. Rowell, Fred Kucharski, and Aurore Voldoire

Abstract

The Sahel experienced a severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s after wet periods in the 1950s and 1960s. Although rainfall partially recovered since the 1990s, the drought had devastating impacts on society. Most studies agree that this dry period resulted primarily from remote effects of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies amplified by local land surface–atmosphere interactions. This paper reviews advances made during the last decade to better understand the impact of global SST variability on West African rainfall at interannual to decadal time scales. At interannual time scales, a warming of the equatorial Atlantic and Pacific/Indian Oceans results in rainfall reduction over the Sahel, and positive SST anomalies over the Mediterranean Sea tend to be associated with increased rainfall. At decadal time scales, warming over the tropics leads to drought over the Sahel, whereas warming over the North Atlantic promotes increased rainfall. Prediction systems have evolved from seasonal to decadal forecasting. The agreement among future projections has improved from CMIP3 to CMIP5, with a general tendency for slightly wetter conditions over the central part of the Sahel, drier conditions over the western part, and a delay in the monsoon onset. The role of the Indian Ocean, the stationarity of teleconnections, the determination of the leader ocean basin in driving decadal variability, the anthropogenic role, the reduction of the model rainfall spread, and the improvement of some model components are among the most important remaining questions that continue to be the focus of current international projects.

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