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John C. Bellamy

Abstract

It is proposed that units of length called nautical spans, chains and feet—and defined respectively to be 60, 1/60 and 1/6,000 nautical miles in length—be adopted internationally for use in weather-service and aeronautical operations. It is also proposed that the mandatory reporting levels for upper air charts he at intervals of one nautical mile of barometric altitude.

These proposed units have been selected to provide close numerical correspondences with associated sexagesimal measures of angular position and time; they are shown to interrelate values for time, horizontal angular and linear positions speeds, accelerations, and vertical barometric and geometric positions as closely as possible within our current knowledge of the earth and atmosphere. The kinds of practical advantages which would accrue from the adoption of such geodetically and aerodetically derived units of length in characteristically world-wide weather-service and aeronautical operations are also indicated.

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John C. Bellamy

The metric system of units is seen to have evolved into the International System of “SI” Units to provide primarily for defining other specifically-useful units; of which a more usefully Earth-related and Personally-related “Geospheric System of Units” is proposed to serve the growing worldwide needs to coordinate human activities with the nature of their Earthly-environment. That Geospheric System essentially extends the way in which unit-intervals of time and horizontal positions are customarily coordinated throughout the world; and could well first be utilized to serve the characteristic meteorological need to coordinate the vertical positions of things in and of the Earth's atmosphere.

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John C. Bellamy

Abstract

This discussion presents a scheme that has been found to be very convenient for the three-dimensional representation of the pressure and temperature fields in the atmosphere both for forecasting and for aircraft operations. The terms pressure altitude (zp), altimeter correction (D) and specific temperature anomaly (S) are defined and their physical interpretation discussed. The hydrostatic equation, the geostrophic and gradient wind equations, and the thermal wind equations are stated in terms of these parameters. All necessary tables and calculation diagrams including a thermodynamic chart called the pastagram are presented. Applications of the proposed scheme to pressure-height computations, wind calculations, aircraft operations and general synoptic analysis are given together with a number of examples.

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John C. Bellamy

Methods of calculating horizontal divergence, vertical velocity and vorticity directly from wind observations without analyzing the wind field are presented. The appropriate formulae for these quantities in terms of the finite areas or volumes determined by the observation points are derived. Convenient nomographs and tabular forms for their calculation are described and illustrated.

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