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Margaret A. LeMone

A survey of the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, the Journal of Applied Meteorology, and the Monthly Weather Review shows that the number of publications per year resulting from GATE (GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment) peaked in 1980, six years after the experiment's field phase.

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Leslie M. Hartten and Margaret A. LeMone

Statistics regarding the fractional participation of women in meteorology/atmospheric sciences gathered by the AMS are quite similar to those based on annual National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys. The absolute numbers in the biennial AMS/UCAR survey of academic departments for the Curricula series ceased being useful by around 2005, when many departments stopped participating fully, but numbers from less-frequent direct AMS membership surveys have been increasing. Despite the limitations of the AMS data, the NSF statistics confirm conclusions from an earlier analysis of AMS data. Both numbers and percentages are required to tell the evolving story of the atmospheric sciences' “pipeline.” Furthermore, after correction of an error regarding the AMS statistics in our 2010 paper, both NSF and AMS data show the same increase in the proportion of women graduate students in the field over the last four decades, as well as an apparent leveling off at approximately one-third.

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Leslie M. Hartten and Margaret A. LeMone

Abstract

No Abstract available.

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Margaret A. LeMone and Patricia L. Waukau

The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4–5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.

The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.

The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. Prejudiced discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.

Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable to those of their male counterparts. It is suggested that this is a result of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized quickly as individuals. It also may be partially attributed to the relative youth of the women involved. They are too young to have encountered the severe discrimination others experienced in the past, and too young to have reached the barriers that have traditionally prevented women from advancing to higher positions. No figures are available that would allow comparison between salaries of male and female holders of bachelor's and master's degrees.

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Margaret A. LeMone, Thomas W. Schlatter, and Robert T. Henson

Scientific investigation is supposed to be objective and strictly logical, but this is not always the case: the process that leads to a good conclusion can be messy. This narrative describes interactions among a group of scientists trying to solve a simple problem that had scientific implications. It started with the observation of a cloud exhibiting behavior associated with supercooled water and temperatures around −20°C. However, other aspects of the cloud suggested an altitude where the temperature was around −40°C. For several months following the appearance of the cloud on 23 March 2011, the people involved searched for evidence, formed strong opinions, argued, examined evidence more carefully, changed their minds, and searched for more evidence until they could reach agreement. While they concluded that the cloud was at the higher and colder altitude, evidence for supercooled liquid water at that altitude is not conclusive.

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, David B. Parsons, Steven E. Koch, James A. Moore, Margaret A. LeMone, Belay B. Demoz, Cyrille Flamant, Bart Geerts, Junhong Wang, and Wayne F. Feltz

The International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) is one of the largest North American meteorological field experiments in history. From 13 May to 25 June 2002, over 250 researchers and technical staff from the United States, Germany, France, and Canada converged on the Southern Great Plains to measure water vapor and other atmospheric variables. The principal objective of IHOP_2002 is to obtain an improved characterization of the time-varying three-dimensional water vapor field and evaluate its utility in improving the understanding and prediction of convective processes. The motivation for this objective is the combination of extremely low forecast skill for warm-season rainfall and the relatively large loss of life and property from flash floods and other warm-season weather hazards. Many prior studies on convective storm forecasting have shown that water vapor is a key atmospheric variable that is insufficiently measured. Toward this goal, IHOP_2002 brought together many of the existing operational and new state-of-the-art research water vapor sensors and numerical models.

The IHOP_2002 experiment comprised numerous unique aspects. These included several instruments fielded for the first time (e.g., reference radiosonde); numerous upgraded instruments (e.g., Wyoming Cloud Radar); the first ever horizontal-pointing water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL; i.e., Leandre II on the Naval Research Laboratory P-3), which required the first onboard aircraft avoidance radar; several unique combinations of sensors (e.g., multiple profiling instruments at one field site and the German water vapor DIAL and NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Doppler lidar on board the German Falcon aircraft); and many logistical challenges. This article presents a summary of the motivation, goals, and experimental design of the project, illustrates some preliminary data collected, and includes discussion on some potential operational and research implications of the experiment.

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Joseph G. Alfieri, Richard H. Cuenca, Yutaka Hagimoto, Peter Blanken, Dev Niyogi, Songlak Kang, Kenneth Davis, and Robert L. Grossman

The May–June 2002 International H2O Project was held in the U.S. Southern Great Plains to determine ways that moisture data could be collected and utilized in numerical forecast models most effectively. We describe the surface and boundary layer components, and indicate how the data can be acquired. These data document the eddy transport of heat and water vapor from the surface to the atmosphere (in terms of sensible heat flux H and latent heat flux LE), as well as radiative, atmospheric, soil, and vegetative factors that affect it, so that the moisture and heat supply to the atmosphere can be related to surface properties both for observational studies and tests of land surface models. The surface dataset was collected at 10 surface flux towers at locations representing the major types of land cover and extending from southeast Kansas to the Oklahoma Panhandle. At each location, the components of the surface energy budget (H, LE, net radiation, and soil heat flux) are documented each half-hour, along with the weather (wind, temperature, mixing ratio, air pressure, and precipitation), soil temperature, moisture, and matric potential down to 70–90 cm beneath the surface at 9 of the 10 sites. Observations of soil and vegetation properties and their horizontal changes were taken near all 10 towers during periodic visits. Aircraft measurements of H and LE from repeated low-level flight tracks along three tracks collocated with the surface sites extend the flux tower measurements horizontally. We illustrate the effects of vegetation and soil moisture on the H and LE and their horizontal variability.

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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Robert T. Ryan, Warren M. Washington, Donald R. Johnson, William D. Bonner, Margaret A. LeMone, Ronald D. McPherson, Richard E. Hallgren, and Kenneth C. Spengler
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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, David D. Houghton, Paul D. Try, Warren M. Washington, Robert T. Ryan, Margaret A. LeMone, Richard S. Greenfield, Richard E. Hallgren, and Kenneth C. Spengler
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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Warren M. Washington, David D. Houghton, Robert T. Ryan, Donald R. Johnson, Margaret A. LeMone, Alexander E. MacDonald, Richard E. Hallgren, and Kenneth C. Spengler
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