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C-P. Chang, V. F. Morris, and J. M. Wallace


The period July–December 1964 in the tropical western Pacific was marked by strong fluctuations in the meridional wind component with periods ranging from 4–6 days. This paper describes an intensive study of these disturbances, using spectrum-analysis techniques on time series of radiosonde data.

Two types of disturbances appear to be involved. One of these, prevalent at Canton Island, is characterized by upward phase propagation in the lower troposphere and downward phase propagation above 200 mb. It has previously been suggested that this wave may be the tropospheric manifestation of the mixed Rossby- gravity wave. A second type of disturbance, prevalent at stations further west, is marked by an absence of vertical phase propagation. Latent heat release may be important in its energetics.

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Matthew T. Morris, Jacob R. Carley, Edward Colón, Annette Gibbs, Manuel S. F. V. De Pondeca, and Steven Levine


Missing observations at airports can cause delays in commercial and general aviation in the United States owing to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety regulations. The Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) has provided interpolated temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) at airport locations throughout the United States since 2015, with these data substituting for missing temperature observations and mitigating impacts on air travel. A quality assessment of the RTMA is performed to determine if the RTMA could be used in a similar fashion for other weather observations, such as 10-m wind, ceiling, and visibility. Retrospective, data-denial experiments are used to perform the quality assessment by withholding observations from FAA-specified airports. Outliers seen in the RTMA ceiling and visibility analyses during events meeting or exceeding instrument flight rules suggest the RTMA should not be substituted for missing ceiling and visibility observations at this time. The RTMA is a suitable replacement for missing temperature observations for a subset of airports throughout most of the CONUS and Alaska, but not at all stations. Likewise, the RTMA is a suitable substitute for missing surface pressure observations at a subset of airports, with notable exceptions in regions of complex terrain. The RTMA may also be a suitable substitute for missing wind speed observations, provided the wind speed is ≤15 kt (1 kt ≈ 0.51 m s−1). Overall, these results suggest the potential for RTMA to substitute for additional missing observations while highlighting priority areas of future work for improving the RTMA.

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The Arm Program's Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods

Overview, Initial Accomplishments, and Future Challenges

H. E. Revercomb, D. D. Turner, D. C. Tobin, R. O. Knuteson, W. F. Feltz, J. Barnard, J. Bösenberg, S. Clough, D. Cook, R. Ferrare, J. Goldsmith, S. Gutman, R. Halthore, B. Lesht, J. Liljegren, H. Linné, J. Michalsky, V. Morris, W. Porch, S. Richardson, B. Schmid, M. Splitt, T. Van Hove, E. Westwater, and D. Whiteman

A series of water vapor intensive observation periods (WVIOPs) were conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma between 1996 and 2000. The goals of these WVIOPs are to characterize the accuracy of the operational water vapor observations and to develop techniques to improve the accuracy of these measurements.

The initial focus of these experiments was on the lower atmosphere, for which the goal is an absolute accuracy of better than 2% in total column water vapor, corresponding to ~1 W m−2 of infrared radiation at the surface. To complement the operational water vapor instruments during the WVIOPs, additional instrumentation including a scanning Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, chilled-mirror hygrometers, a differential absorption lidar, and ground-based solar radiometers were deployed at the ARM site. The unique datasets from the 1996, 1997, and 1999 experiments have led to many results, including the discovery and characterization of a large (> 25%) sonde-to-sonde variability in the water vapor profiles from Vaisala RS-80H radiosondes that acts like a height-independent calibration factor error. However, the microwave observations provide a stable reference that can be used to remove a large part of the sonde-to-sonde calibration variability. In situ capacitive water vapor sensors demonstrated agreement within 2% of chilled-mirror hygrometers at the surface and on an instrumented tower. Water vapor profiles retrieved from two Raman lidars, which have both been calibrated to the ARM microwave radiometer, showed agreement to within 5% for all altitudes below 8 km during two WVIOPs. The mean agreement of the total precipitable water vapor from different techniques has converged significantly from early analysis that originally showed differences up to 15%. Retrievals of total precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the ARM microwave radiometer are now found to be only 3% moister than PWV derived from new GPS results, and about 2% drier than the mean of radiosonde data after a recently defined sonde dry-bias correction is applied. Raman lidar profiles calibrated using tower-mounted chilled-mirror hygrometers confirm the expected sensitivity of microwave radiometer data to water vapor changes, but it is drier than the microwave radiometer (MWR) by 0.95 mm for all PWV amounts. However, observations from different collocated microwave radiometers have shown larger differences than expected and attempts to resolve the remaining inconsistencies (in both calibration and forward modeling) are continuing.

The paper concludes by outlining the objectives of the recent 2000 WVIOP and the ARM–First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX), the latter of which switched the focus to characterizing upper-tropospheric humidity measurements.

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