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James R. Scoggins
and
William W. Vaughan

The results of a questionnaire designed to gather information on how nonmeteorological scientists and engineers view meteorology and weather forecasting are summarized in this paper. The respondents were from two organizations, Texas A&M University and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the first representing the academic community and the latter the engineering community. While there were some differences between the groups, in most cases answers expressed in the opinionnaire by the two groups were essentially identical. The results revealed the following: Approximately three-fourths of the respondents use meteorological data and/or weather forecasts in their profession; the meaning of probability forecasts is very unclear with only 13% indicating the correct answer; television is the main source of weather information; approximately half of the respondents had never heard of the Global Atmospheric Research Program; and the opinion was almost unanimous that satellites had contributed significantly to weather observations and/or forecasts. Also, the results indicated a number of other “problem” areas where some improvements are desired.

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William W. Vaughan
and
Orvel E. Smith

Some of the accomplishments made during the past decade toward the solution of atmospheric problems associated with aerospace vehicle design and operations are reviewed. Improved measurement systems, atmospheric models and data applications, and some current aerospace related atmospheric problems are discussed. A summary of the planned Space Shuttle and some of the atmospheric properties which will be of concern in the design and operation are given.

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William W. Vaughan
and
Dale L. Johnson

The meteorological satellite program began in the United States as the result of the actions taken by a very small but dedicated group of people from the late 1940s to 1960. This paper provides firsthand accounts by two of these dedicated individuals. Their remarks provide an insight into the trials and tribulations they and the program encountered during these very early years. Those now active in the program, many of whom do not recall this time, might appreciate the effort of these pioneers and the legacy they left for us.

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William W. Vaughan
and
Dale L. Johnson

Aerospace meteorology plays an important role in the design, development, and operation of aerospace vehicles. Many of the issues and lessons presented occurred during the involvement of the authors with the development and interpretation of aerospace environment inputs, especially those of the terrestrial environment. Background for the actions needed to avoid the issue being repeated or the lesson having to be relearned is addressed. The engineering application importance and some issues associated with the presentation and interpretation of terrestrial environment guidelines associated with aerospace meteorology elements are presented.

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James W. Bilbro
and
William W. Vaughan

Coherent Doppler lidar appears to hold great promise in contributing to the basic store of knowledge concerning flow field characteristics in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding severe storms. The Doppler lidar, through its ability to measure clear air returns, augments the conventional Doppler radar system, which is most useful in the precipitous regions of the storm.

A brief description of the Doppler lidar severe storm measurement system is provided along with the technique to be used in performing the flow field measurements. The application of the lidar is addressed, and the planned measurement program is outlined.

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Norman L. Canfield
,
Orvel E. Smith
, and
William W. Vaughan

Abstract

Climatological upper wind records have been found to be inadequate for certain statistical analyses such as the computation of interlevel correlation coefficients, time series analysis and persistence analysis. This article presents a comparison of upper wind data as observed and made available for climatological purposes with that of upper wind records that have been made serially complete. During the winter months at Kennedy Space Center the mean wind speed, as derived from the serially completed wind records, can be as much as 10 meters per second greater than the mean wind speed derived from the observed wind data.

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William W. Vaughan
,
James R. Scoggins
, and
Orvel E. Smith

This paper discusses the role of applied meteorology in the solution of large space vehicle development problems. A general outline of the role of the applied meteorologist is given, followed by a discussion of the data requirements for vehicle design and test evaluation, analytical procedures for data presentation, and areas of influence on space vehicle development. Examples of the influence of atmospheric conditions in the design are presented illustrating the utility of applied meteorology.

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OSKAR M. ESSENWANGER
,
ROBERT E. BRADFORD
, and
WILLIAM W. VAUGHAN

Abstract

The existence of undetected errors in recorded wind observations may have a biasing influence on a statistical study. In the progress of some studies it has been found necessary to reexamine the data being used. A series of upper-air winds has been checked by using available listings of vertical shear and extreme winds. The developed procedure permits correction for major errors and tolerates the minor (random) errors.

The test of data by maximum wind profiles uses the highest and second highest scalar wind speed for each station and checks the data by profile scan. The test of data by vertical wind shear uses a critical value, theoretically derived, exceedance of which marks the data as suspicious. A detailed check of the wind observation verifies this suspicious value or it is corrected. In this program 3.5 percent of the observations proved suspicious and 85 percent thereof, that is, 2.9 percent of the observations, required correction. Thus the critical value is highly efficient.

The errors were traced and split into clerical errors (1.1 percent), instrumental errors (1.3 percent), and computational errors (0.5 percent), which are quite within reasonable limits.

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