Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Worth D. Nowlin Jr. x
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
Full access
Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
Full access
Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
Full access
Worth D. Nowlin Jr.

The status of the United States planning activities for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) for 1988 is presented at length in this article. The following six topics are emphasized: 1) Structure and general planning activities; 2) Summary of projected 1988 meetings; 3) Numerical modeling; 4) Data management; 5) Technology development; and 6) Observation and analysis components. Part 6 is divided into eight subsections that include: a) Satellite measurements; b) WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP); c) Global Sea-Level Program; d) WOCE velocity measurements; e) Core Project 1 surface-layer studies; f) Global atmospheric-ocean exchanges; g) Core Project 3 studies; and h) analysis and interpretation projects.

Full access
Worth D. Nowlin Jr.
Full access
Worth D. Nowlin Jr., Melbourne Briscoe, Neville Smith, Michael J. McPhaden, Dean Roemmich, Piers Chapman, and J. Frederick Grassle

The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was initiated in the early 1990s with sponsorship by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the International Council for Science, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the World Meteorological Organization. Its objective is to design and assist with the implementation of a sustained, integrated, multidisciplinary ocean observing system focused on the production and delivery of data and products to a wide variety of users. The initial design for the GOOS is nearing completion, and implementation has begun.

The initial task in developing a sustained observing system is to identify the requirements of users for sustained data and products. Once such needs are known, the next task is to examine observing system elements that already exist; many necessary elements will be found to exist. The next tasks are to identify and integrate the useful elements into an efficient and effective system, while removing the unneeded elements, and to develop and implement effective data management activities. Moreover, the system must be augmented with new elements because some requirements cannot be met with existing elements and because of technological advances.

Our key objective is to discuss the mechanism whereby new candidate observing system elements are transformed from development status into elements of the sustained system. Candidate systems normally will pass through many different phases on the path from idea and concept to a mature, robust technique. These stages are discussed and examples are given:

  1. Development of an observational/analysis technique within the ocean community.
  2. Community acceptance of the methodology gained through experience within pilot projects to demonstrate the utility of the methods and data.
  3. Pre-operational use of the methods and data by researchers, application groups, and other end users, to ensure proper integration within the global system and to ensure that the intended augmentation (and perhaps phased withdrawal of an old technique) does not have any negative impact on the integrity of the GOOS data set and its dependent products.
  4. Incorporation of the methods and data into an operational framework with sustained support and sustained use to meet societal objectives.

Full access
Worth D. Nowlin Jr., Neville Smith, George Needler, Peter K. Taylor, Robert Weller, Ray Schmitt, Liliane Merlivat, Alain Vézina, Arthur Alexiou, Michael McPhaden, and Massaaki Wakatsuchi

Designs and implementation are proceeding for a Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The initial design for the ocean component of the GCOS, which is also the climate module of the GOOS, was completed in 1995 by the Ocean Observing System Development Panel (OOSDP). This design for an ocean observing system for climate aims to provide ocean observations leading to gridded products, analyses, forecasts, indexes, assessments, and other items needed to detect, monitor, understand, and predict climate variations and change. A summary of the OOSDP report is presented here, beginning with the rationale for such a system and the series of specific goals and subgoals used to focus the design. The instruments, platforms, transmission systems, or processing required to observe the climate variables or quantifiable aspects of the climate system to meet these subgoals are identified. These observing system elements are divided into three categories: 1) elements of existing operational systems, 2) those that should be added now to complete the initial observing system, or 3) elements perhaps not now readily attainable but that should be added to the system at the earliest feasible time. Future research and development likely needed for further development of the system are also identified in the report. The elements needed for each subgoal are ranked as to feasibility (i.e., routine, systematic, timely, and cost-effective characteristics) versus their impact on attaining the subgoal. Priorities among the various subgoals are presented based on the panel's perception of where the immediate and important issues lie. This then provides the basis for an incremental approach to implementation, leading to a coherent conceptual design.

Full access