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  • Author or Editor: Xianan Jiang x
  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Ji-Hyun Oh
Xianan Jiang
Duane E. Waliser
Mitchell W. Moncrieff
Richard H. Johnson
, and
Paul Ciesielski


The Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign was conducted over the Indian Ocean (IO) from October 2011 to February 2012 to investigate the initiation of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Three MJOs accompanying westerly wind events (WWEs) occurred in late October, late November, and late December 2011. Momentum budget analysis is conducted to understand the contributions of the dynamical processes involved in the wind evolution associated with the MJO over the IO during DYNAMO using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. This analysis shows that westerly acceleration at lower levels associated with the MJO active phase generally appears to be maintained by the pressure gradient force (PGF), which could be partly canceled by meridional advection of the zonal wind. Westerly acceleration in the midtroposphere tends to be mostly attributable to vertical advection. The results herein imply that there is no simple linear dynamic model that can capture the WWEs associated with the MJO and that nonlinear processes have to be considered.

In addition, the MJO in November (MJO2), accompanied by two WWEs (WWE1 and WWE2) spaced a few days apart, is diagnosed. Unlike other WWEs during DYNAMO, horizontal advection is more responsible for the westerly acceleration in the lower troposphere for WWE2 than the PGF. Interactions between the MJO2 envelope and convectively coupled waves (CCWs) are analyzed to illuminate the dynamical contribution of these synoptic-scale equatorial waves to the WWEs. The authors suggest that different developing processes among WWEs can be attributed to different types of CCWs.

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