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Zhiqiang Liu
and
Jianping Gan

Abstract

A three-dimensional, high-resolution numerical model is used to investigate processes and dynamics of an intensified upwelling that is induced by a coastal promontory over the East China Sea (ECS) shelf. The center of the intensified upwelling around the promontory has been constantly observed, but, so far, it has been dynamically unexplained. Forced by an idealized southeasterly wind stress, the model results well capture the observed upwelling at the lee of the coastal promontory. The intensified upwelling is formed by a strengthened shoreward transport downstream of the promontory as the upwelling jet veers shoreward. The jet is mainly controlled by a cross-shore geostrophic balance and is largely modulated by both centrifugal acceleration associated with nonlinear advection and by bottom stress. The strengthened shoreward transport is mainly attributed to the cross-shore geostrophic current that is induced by a countercurrent (negative) pressure gradient force (PGF) and partly attributed to the bottom Ekman transport. Based on the analyses of the momentum balance and depth-integrated vorticity dynamics, the authors provide a new explanation for the origin of negative PGF. It is found that the countercurrent PGF is generated by negative bottom stress curl and strengthened by negative vorticity advection downstream of the promontory. While the negative bottom stress curl arises from bottom shear vorticity, the source of negative advection downstream of the promontory is the negative shear vorticity on the seaside of the shoreward-bent jet. Nevertheless, cyclonic curvature vorticity at the bottom and positive vorticity advection in the water column at the promontory weakens the negative PGF. Although nonlinear advection strengthens vorticity advection, it weakens bottom stress curl and has little net effect on the countercurrent PGF.

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Qi Quan
,
Zhongya Cai
,
Guangzhen Jin
, and
Zhiqiang Liu

Abstract

Topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) in the abyssal South China Sea (SCS) are investigated using observations and high-resolution numerical simulations. These energetic waves can account for over 40% of the kinetic energy (KE) variability in the deep western boundary current and seamount region in the central SCS. This proportion can even reach 70% over slopes in the northern and southern SCS. The TRW-induced currents exhibit columnar (i.e., in phase) structure in which the speed increases downward. Wave properties such as the period (5–60 days), wavelength (100–500 km), and vertical trapping scale (102–103 m) vary significantly depending on environmental parameters of the SCS. The TRW energy propagates along steep topography with phase propagation offshore. TRWs with high frequencies exhibit a stronger climbing effect than low-frequency ones and hence can move further upslope. For TRWs with a certain frequency, the wavelength and trapping scale are dominated by the topographic beta, whereas the group velocity is more sensitive to the internal Rossby deformation radius. Background circulation with horizontal shear can change the wavelength and direction of TRWs if the flow velocity is comparable to the group velocity, particularly in the central, southern, and eastern SCS. A case study suggests two possible energy sources for TRWs: mesoscale perturbation in the upper layer and large-scale background circulation in the deep layer. The former provides KE by pressure work, whereas the latter transfers the available potential energy (APE) through baroclinic instability.

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Jianping Gan
,
Zhiqiang Liu
, and
Chiwing Rex Hui

Abstract

Understanding of the three-dimensional circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) is crucial for determining the transports of water masses, energy, and biogeochemical substances in the regional and adjacent larger oceans. The circulation’s kinematic and dynamic natures, however, are largely unclear. Results from a three-dimensional numerical ocean circulation model and geostrophic currents, derived from hydrographic data, reveal the existence of a unique, three-layer, cyclonic–anticyclonic–cyclonic (CAC) circulation in the upper (<750 m), middle (750–1500 m), and deep (>1500 m) layers in the SCS with differing seasonality. An inflow–outflow–inflow structure in Luzon Strait largely induces the CAC circulation, which leads to vortex stretching in the SCS basin because of a lateral planetary vorticity flux in each of the respective layers. The formation of joint effects of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR) is an intrinsic dynamic response to the CAC circulation. The JEBAR arises from the CAC flow–topography interaction in the SCS.

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Shuai Li
,
Li Liu
,
Zhiqiang Gong
,
Jie Yang
, and
Guolin Feng

Abstract

As subsystems of the Asian summer monsoon, summer precipitation variations in India and the northern part of eastern China (NEC) are physically connected. This study noted that the connection has been significantly enhanced after 1999 compared to 1979–98, which is due to the strengthened water vapor transportation connection between the two regions. That is associated with interdecadal variations of the combined effects of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) on the northwest Pacific subtropical high (NWPSH) and the Indo-Pacific Walker cell. Against the background of La Niña, the strengthened NWPSH and Indo-Pacific Walker cell favor water vapor transport to India and the NEC since 1999. Accordingly, summer precipitation in the two regions increases simultaneously, leading to the enhancement of the summer precipitation teleconnection between them. In addition, the influence of TIO SSTAs and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) on Indo-Pacific circulations decreases, which further enhances the relative importance of ENSO on the summer precipitation in the two regions. However, during 1979–98, La Niña SSTAs has weak effects on the NWPSH and Indo-Pacific Walker cell, the negative TIO SSTAs significantly weaken NWPSH, and the negative IOD also obstructs the westward extension of the Indo-Pacific Walker cell. Circulations and water vapor transportation related to the Indian Ocean and NEC summer precipitation are inconsistent, resulting in a weak precipitation teleconnection between them. The above conclusions are also validated by extreme case analysis and CMIP6 models.

Significance Statement

This paper mainly studies the influences of different types of ENSO and Indian Ocean SSTAs on the interdecadal variations of the summer precipitation relationship between India and the northern part of eastern China (NEC). We find that the summer precipitation relationship between them is strengthened again after 1999, which deepens the understanding of summer precipitation in Asia and has great significance for improving dynamic models’ prediction skills. The interdecadal variations of the combined effects of the Indian and Pacific Oceans are the fundamental reasons for the interdecadal variations of precipitation relationships, which promotes the understanding of interactions of different oceans and their impacts on Asian climate.

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Zhiqiang Chen
,
Jiping Liu
,
Mirong Song
,
Qinghua Yang
, and
Shiming Xu

Abstract

Here sea ice concentration derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder and thickness derived from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity and CryoSat-2 satellites are assimilated in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System using a localized error subspace transform ensemble Kalman filter (LESTKF). Three ensemble-based hindcasts are conducted to examine impacts of the assimilation on Arctic sea ice prediction, including CTL (without any assimilation), LESTKF-1 (with initial sea ice assimilation only), and LESTKF-E5 (with every 5-day sea ice assimilation). Assessment with the assimilated satellite products and independent sea ice thickness datasets shows that assimilating sea ice concentration and thickness leads to improved Arctic sea ice prediction. LESTKF-1 improves sea ice forecast initially. The initial improvement gradually diminishes after ~3-week integration for sea ice extent but remains quite steady through the integration for sea ice thickness. Large biases in both the ice extent and thickness in CTL are remarkably reduced through the hindcast in LESTKF-E5. Additional numerical experiments suggest that the hindcast with sea ice thickness assimilation dramatically reduces systematic bias in the predicted ice thickness compared with sea ice concentration assimilation only or without any assimilation, which also benefits the prediction of sea ice extent and concentration due to their covariability. Hence, the corrected state of sea ice thickness would aid in the forecast procedure. Increasing the number of ensemble members or extending the integration period to generate estimates of initial model states and uncertainties seems to have small impacts on sea ice prediction relative to LESTKF-E5.

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Wenfeng Lai
,
Jianping Gan
,
Ye Liu
,
Zhiqiang Liu
,
Jiping Xie
, and
Jiang Zhu

Abstract

To improve the forecasting performance in dynamically active coastal waters forced by winds, tides, and river discharges in a coupled estuary–shelf model off Hong Kong, a multivariable data assimilation (DA) system using the ensemble optimal interpolation method has been developed and implemented. The system assimilates the conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) profilers, time series buoy measurement, and remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST) data into a high-resolution estuary–shelf ocean model around Hong Kong. We found that the time window selection associated with the local dynamics and the number of observation samples are two key factors in improving assimilation in the unique estuary–shelf system. DA with a varied assimilation time window that is based on the intratidal variation in the local dynamics can reduce the errors in the estimation of the innovation vector caused by the model–observation mismatch at the analysis time and improve simulation greatly in both the estuary and coastal regions. Statistically, the overall root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the DA forecasts and not-yet-assimilated observations for temperature and salinity has been reduced by 33.0% and 31.9% in the experiment period, respectively. By assimilating higher-resolution remote sensing SST data instead of lower-resolution satellite SST, the RMSE of SST is improved by ~18%. Besides, by assimilating real-time buoy mooring data, the model bias can be continuously corrected both around the buoy location and beyond. The assimilation of the combined buoy, CTD, and SST data can provide an overall improvement of the simulated three-dimensional solution. A dynamics-oriented assimilation scheme is essential for the improvement of model forecasting in the estuary–shelf system under multiple forcings.

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Jiping Liu
,
Zhiqiang Chen
,
Jennifer Francis
,
Mirong Song
,
Thomas Mote
, and
Yongyun Hu

Abstract

In recent decades, the Greenland ice sheet has experienced increased surface melt. However, the underlying cause of this increased surface melting and how it relates to cryospheric changes across the Arctic remain unclear. Here it is shown that an important contributing factor is the decreasing Arctic sea ice. Reduced summer sea ice favors stronger and more frequent occurrences of blocking-high pressure events over Greenland. Blocking highs enhance the transport of warm, moist air over Greenland, which increases downwelling infrared radiation, contributes to increased extreme heat events, and accounts for the majority of the observed warming trends. These findings are supported by analyses of observations and reanalysis data, as well as by independent atmospheric model simulations using a state-of-the-art atmospheric model that is forced by varying only the sea ice conditions. Reduced sea ice conditions in the model favor more extensive Greenland surface melting. The authors find a positive feedback between the variability in the extent of summer Arctic sea ice and melt area of the summer Greenland ice sheet, which affects the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. This linkage may improve the projections of changes in the global sea level and thermohaline circulation.

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Qi Quan
,
Zhiqiang Liu
,
Huijie Xue
,
Jianyu Hu
,
Qiang Wang
,
Han Zhang
,
Xiaohui Liu
,
Guangzhen Jin
, and
Ya Ping Wang

Abstract

Using observations and theoretical models, a substantial topographic modulation on the quasigeostrophic (QG) dynamics, which results in a primary surface mode distinct from the classic first baroclinic (BC1) mode with a flat bottom, is revealed in the northern South China Sea (NSCS). In contrast to open oceans, the surface-intensified modes decay downward more rapidly over the continental slope of the NSCS, with a mean e-folding scale of approximately 1/5 of water depth. The subinertial flow variability appears to be vertically incoherent, with planetary and topographic Rossby waves dominating in the upper and deep layers, respectively. With a larger deformation radius (Rd ), the surface-mode Rossby waves propagate at a phase speed ∼1.5 times of that of the BC1 mode. Moreover, the modal structures can be substantially modified by seasonal NSCS circulation, which is significantly enhanced over continental slopes. Analysis of the triad interactions further implies that the short waves tend to transfer energy to larger scales via the inverse cascade and only those with wavelengths larger than Rd ≈ 70 km in the NSCS can persist because of a slower unstable growth rate but a higher fraction of upscale energy transfer. The present theory excludes the bottom-trapped mode, which is closely associated with topographic Rossby waves and is observed to be significant in the abyssal NSCS. Hence, a complete normal-mode basis for any QG state is required for a study that focuses on flow variability throughout the water column. Our findings provide an insight into the vertical partition of horizontal kinetic energy for QG motions, as well as the relevant oceanic variation in marginal seas.

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Yujun Wang
,
Hongbo Yang
,
Vanessa Hull
,
Jindong Zhang
,
Xiaodong Chen
,
Xiang Li
,
Zejun Zhang
,
Cheng Li
,
Fang Wang
,
Zhiqiang Zhao
,
Ying Tang
, and
Jianguo Liu

Abstract

The effects of various strategies aimed at simultaneously promoting environmental conservation and human development are closely related to sustainable development regionally and globally. However, although the effects of many such strategies have been evaluated by ecologists and sociologists separately, their ability to simultaneously meet these two anticipated goals (i.e., environmental conservation and human development) at the fine spatial scale remains unclear. To answer this fundamental but crucial question, incorporating household and forest change data, we concurrently estimated the ecological and socioeconomic effects of two world-renowned Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs (i.e., the Nature Forest Conservation Program, the Grain to Green Program) and nature-based tourism in 30 protected areas across 8 provinces in China. Here we showed a trade-off between the ecological and economic effects of two PES programs, while synergistic effects exist in the ecological and economic benefits of tourism. Attributes of household and protected areas significantly influenced economic and environmental benefits as well. Our research provides new insights into the complex effects of PES programs and tourism, and crucial information to support their adequate and sustainable implementation in China and the rest of the world.

Significance Statement

This work answers a fundamental but crucial question, that is, whether the policies commonly advocated to incorporate environmental conservation and human development can yield positive effects both for conservation and economic development. Our evaluation is also timely to inform some shortness (i.e., negligible economic effects, or the lack of expected positive economic benefits) and provides new insights (e.g., the implication of households and protected-areas attributes in conservation and economic outcomes) of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs and the complex effects of instruments in the context of multiple policies, particularly given the upcoming 2030 deadline for achieving the Sustainable Development goals (SDGs). We expected that implications in this study can provide important lessons for these two instruments, other PES programs, and other conservation and development instruments to support their adequate and sustainable implementation in China and beyond and to contribute to the achievement of relevant SDGs in the remaining years.

Open access
Shunlin Liang
,
Jie Cheng
,
Kun Jia
,
Bo Jiang
,
Qiang Liu
,
Zhiqiang Xiao
,
Yunjun Yao
,
Wenping Yuan
,
Xiaotong Zhang
,
Xiang Zhao
, and
Ji Zhou

Abstract:

The Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite currently contains 12 products, including leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary production, broadband albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downward shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface temperature, downward and upwelling thermal radiation, all-wave net radiation, and evapotranspiration. These products are generated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data. Their unique features include long-term temporal coverage (many from 1981 to the present), high spatial resolutions of the surface radiation products (1 km and 0.05°), spatial continuities without missing pixels, and high quality and accuracy based on extensive validation using in situ measurements and intercomparisons with other existing satellite products. Moreover, the GLASS products are based on robust algorithms that have been published in peer-reviewed literature. Herein, we provide an overview of the algorithm development, product characteristics, and some preliminary applications of these products. We also describe the next steps, such as improving the existing GLASS products, generating more climate data records (CDRs), broadening product dissemination, and fostering their wider utilization. The GLASS products are freely available to the public.

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