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A. A. N. Patrinos and K. O. Bowman

Abstract

A statistical technique for the treatment of data from weather modification experiments is presented. This work, a part of the Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program, is aimed at determining the potential precipitation modification effects of the Bowen Electric Generating Plant near Cartersville, Georgia. For that purpose a network of 49 recording raingages and four recording windsets situated on a square (42 km side) grid was installed in early 1978.

The statistical technique utilizes a design which resembles the crossover statistical design used in cloud seeding studies and employs the distributional properties of the sample skewness and kurtosis. Based on the storm data from the above network for the period February 1978-August 1978 the technique demonstrates an anomaly in the target area rainfall with a 90% confidence level. This anomaly is interpreted as a plant-induced modification of the spatial variability of rainfall volume.

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Martin J. Leach and A. A. N. Patrinos

Abstract

The existence of coastal fronts and their effects on deposition patterns in the Washington, D.C. area are presented in this paper. The data are from an experiment conducted from October 1986 to March 1987. An earlier paper by Patrinos et al. presented the details of the deposition patterns. The results presented in that paper were not entirely consistent with the experiment's hypothesis; that is, synoptic-scale southeasterly surface flow would produce excess deposition northwest of the city. Instead, excess deposition was found to the southeast of the urban area. This paper examines the meteorology more closely and shows how small-scale meteorological circulations influence the flow fields and deposition patterns. The wind fields in the experiment area were more northerly to northeasterly in response to coastal circulations, rather than southeasterly as expected from the synoptic conditions. The meteorology and deposition patterns from four cases are presented, with evidence of coastal circulations apparent in three of the four cases.

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A. A. N. Patrino, N. C. J. Chen, and R. L. Miller

Abstract

Spatial correlations based on monthly rainfall totals from northwest Georgia for the period 1949–77 are studied. This work, a part of the Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program, determines natural variability rainfall trends and assists the field studies of potential precipitation effects of the Bowen Electric Generating Plant near Cartersville, Georgia. The spatial correlations, based on the overall record as well as the stratified data in terms of “wet” and “dry” seasons, are investigated with regard to distance between stations, wind direction and topography. The results indicate a strong dependence of the spatial correlation patterns on the prevailing storm tracks in the area.

A method is developed using the spatial correlation as an indicator of effects in weather modification experiments. This method is based on the generation of empirical distribution functions by randomization for various sample sizes. The application of this technique to the Plant Bowen study in a control-target statistical design reveals preliminary positive evidence of rainfall modification in the target area.

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A. A. N. Patrinos, M. J. Leach, R. M. Brown, R. L. Tanner, and F. S. Binkowski

Abstract

A field study in the Washington, D.C. area explored the impact of urban emissions and mesoscale meteorology on precipitation chemistry. The study was a follow-up to an earlier, considerably more industrialized, study in the Philadelphia area; emissions along the Delaware Valley were found to affect the deposition of nitrate and sulfate on the urban mesoscale. The Washington studies were designed to complement and enhance the earlier study with an expanded sampling domain, sequential precipitation sampling and airborne measurements. Four storms were sampled successfully between October 1986 and April 1987. Results appear to confirm the conclusions of the Philadelphia study, although the upwind-downwind contrast in nitrate and sulfate deposition is not as pronounced. This difference is attributed to the area's widely distributed emission patterns and to the prevailing theories regarding the production of nitric acid and sulfuric acid on the relevant time and space scales. The importance of mesoscale meteorology and hydrogen peroxide availability is highlighted in at least two of the sampled storms.

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