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D. M. A. Jones

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P. D. Jones and A. Moberg

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This study is an extensive revision of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) land station temperature database that is used to produce a gridbox dataset of 5° latitude × 5° longitude temperature anomalies. The new database comprises 5159 station records, of which 4167 have enough data for the 1961–90 period to calculate or estimate the necessary averages. Apart from the increase in station numbers compared to the earlier study in 1994, many station records have had their data replaced by newly homogenized series that have been produced by several recent studies. New versions of all the gridded datasets currently available on the CRU Web site (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk) have been developed. This includes combinations with marine (sea surface temperature anomalies) data over the oceans and versions with adjustment of the variance of individual gridbox series to remove the effects of changing station numbers through time.

Hemispheric and global temperature averages for land areas developed with the new dataset differ slightly from those developed in 1994. Possible reasons for the differences between the new and the earlier analysis and those from the National Climatic Data Center and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies are discussed. Differences are greatest over the Southern Hemisphere and at the beginnings and ends of each time series and relate to gridbox sizes and data availability. The rate of annual warming for global land areas over the 1901–2000 period is estimated by least squares to be 0.07°C decade−1 (significant at better than the 99.9% level). Warming is not continuous but occurs principally over two periods (about 1920–45 and since 1975). Annual temperature series for the seven continents and the Arctic all show significant warming over the twentieth century, with significant (95%) warming for 1920–44 for North America, the Arctic, Africa, and South America, and all continents except Australia and the Antarctic since 1977. Cooling is significant during the intervening period (1945–76) for North America, the Arctic, and Africa.

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C. A. Doswell III, R. Davies-Jones, and D. L. Keller

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D. Hudson, A. G. Marshall, O. Alves, G. Young, D. Jones, and A. Watkins

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There has been increasing demand in Australia for extended-range forecasts of extreme heat events. An assessment is made of the subseasonal experimental guidance provided by the Bureau of Meteorology’s seasonal prediction system, Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA, version 2), for the three most extreme heat events over Australia in 2013, which occurred in January, March, and September. The impacts of these events included devastating bushfires and damage to crops. The outlooks performed well for January and September, with forecasts indicating increased odds of top-decile maximum temperature over most affected areas at least one week in advance for the fortnightly averaged periods at the start of the heat waves and for forecasts of the months of January and September. The March event was more localized, affecting southern Australia. Although the anomalously high sea surface temperature around southern Australia in March (a potential source of predictability) was correctly forecast, the forecast of high temperatures over the mainland was restricted to the coastline. September was associated with strong forcing from some large-scale atmospheric climate drivers known to increase the chance of having more extreme temperatures over parts of Australia. POAMA-2 was able to forecast the sense of these drivers at least one week in advance, but their magnitude was weaker than observed. The reasonably good temperature forecasts for September are likely due to the model being able to forecast the important climate drivers and their teleconnection to Australian climate. This study adds to the growing evidence that there is significant potential to extend and augment traditional weather forecast guidance for extreme events to include longer-lead probabilistic information.

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A. C. Poje, M. Toner, A. D. Kirwan Jr., and C. K. R. T. Jones

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A basin-scale, reduced-gravity model is used to study how drifter launch strategies affect the accuracy of Eulerian velocity fields reconstructed from limited Lagrangian data. Optimal dispersion launch sites are found by tracking strongly hyperbolic singular points in the flow field. Lagrangian data from drifters launched from such locations are found to provide significant improvement in the reconstruction accuracy over similar but randomly located initial deployments. The eigenvalues of the hyperbolic singular points in the flow field determine the intensity of the local particle dispersion and thereby provide a natural timescale for initializing subsequent launches. Aligning the initial drifter launch in each site along an outflowing manifold ensures both high initial particle dispersion and the eventual sampling of regions of high kinetic energy, two factors that substantially affect the accuracy of the Eulerian reconstruction. Reconstruction error is reduced by a factor of ∼2.5 by using a continual launch strategy based on both the local stretching rates and the outflowing directions of two strong saddles located in the dynamically active region south of the central jet. Notably, a majority of those randomly chosen launch sites that produced the most accurate reconstructions also sampled the local manifold structure.

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G. M. Martin, M. A. Ringer, V. D. Pope, A. Jones, C. Dearden, and T. J. Hinton

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The atmospheric component of the new Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM1) is described and an assessment of its mean climatology presented. HadGEM1 includes substantially improved representations of physical processes, increased functionality, and higher resolution than its predecessor, the Third Hadley Centre Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3). Major developments are the use of semi-Lagrangian instead of Eulerian advection for both dynamical and tracer fields; new boundary layer, gravity wave drag, microphysics, and sea ice schemes; and major changes to the convection, land surface (including tiled surface characteristics), and cloud schemes. There is better coupling between the atmosphere, land, ocean, and sea ice subcomponents and the model includes an interactive aerosol scheme, representing both the first and second indirect effects. Particular focus has been placed on improving the processes (such as clouds and aerosol) that are most uncertain in projections of climate change.

These developments lead to a significantly more realistic simulation of the processes represented, the most notable improvements being in the hydrological cycle, cloud radiative properties, the boundary layer, the tropopause structure, and the representation of tracers.

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A. Philipp, P. M. Della-Marta, J. Jacobeit, D. R. Fereday, P. D. Jones, A. Moberg, and H. Wanner

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Reconstructed daily mean sea level pressure patterns of the North Atlantic–European region are classified for the period 1850 to 2003 to explore long-term changes of the atmospheric circulation and its impact on long-term temperature variability in the central European region. Commonly used k-means clustering algorithms resulted in classifications of low quality because of methodological deficiencies leading to local optima by chance for complex datasets. In contrast, a newly implemented clustering scheme combining the concepts of simulated annealing and diversified randomization (SANDRA) is able to reduce substantially the influence of chance in the cluster assignment, leading to partitions that are noticeably nearer to the global optimum and more stable. The differences between conventional cluster analysis and the SANDRA scheme are significant for subsequent analyses of single clusters—in particular, for trend analysis. Conventional indices used to determine the appropriate number of clusters failed to provide clear guidance, indicating that no distinct separation between clusters of circulation types exists in the dataset. Therefore, the number of clusters is determined by an external indicator, the so-called dominance criteria for t-mode principal component analysis. Nevertheless, the resulting partitions are stable for certain numbers of clusters and provide meaningful and reproducible clusters. The resulting types of pressure patterns reveal pronounced long-term variability and various significant trends of the time series of seasonal cluster frequency. Tentative estimations of central European temperature changes based solely on seasonal cluster frequencies can explain between 33.9% (summer) and 59.0% (winter) of temperature variance on the seasonal time scale. However, the signs of long-term changes in temperature are correctly reproduced even on multidecadal–centennial time scales. Moreover, linear warming trends are reproduced, implying from one-third up to one-half of the observed temperature increase between 1851/52 and 2003 (except for summer, but with significant trends for spring and autumn), indicating that changes in daily circulation patterns contribute to the observed overall long-term warming in the central European region.

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Junjun Hu, Nusrat Yussouf, David D. Turner, Thomas A. Jones, and Xuguang Wang

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Due to lack of high spatial and temporal resolution boundary layer (BL) observations, the rapid changes in the near-storm environment are not well represented in current convective-scale numerical models. Better representation of the near-storm environment in model initial conditions will likely further improve the forecasts of severe convective weather. This study investigates the impact of assimilating high temporal resolution BL retrievals from two ground-based remote sensing instruments for short-term forecasts of a tornadic supercell event on 13 July 2015 during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night field campaign. The instruments are the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) that retrieves thermodynamic profiles and the Doppler lidar (DL) that measures horizontal wind profiles. Six sets of convective-scale ensemble data assimilation (DA) experiments are performed: two control experiments that assimilate conventional and WSR-88D radar observations using either relaxation-to-prior-spread (RTPS) or the adaptive inflation (AI) technique and four experiments similar to the control but that assimilate either DL or AERI or both observations in addition to all other observations that are in the control experiments. Results indicate a positive impact of AERI and DL observations in forecasting convective initiation (CI) and early evolution of the supercell storm. The experiment that employs the AI technique to assimilate BL observations in DA enhances the humidity in the near-storm environment and low-level convergence, which in turn helps forecasting CI. The forecast improvement is most pronounced during the first ~3 h. Results also indicate that the AERI observations have a larger impact compared to DL in predicting CI.

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A. M. Rogerson, P. D. Miller, L. J. Pratt, and C. K. R. T. Jones

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Kinematic models predict that a coherent structure, such as a jet or an eddy, in an unsteady flow can exchange fluid with its surroundings. The authors consider the significance of this effect for a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, barotropic model of a meandering jet. The calculated volume transport associated with this fluid exchange is comparable to that of fluid crossing the Gulf Stream through the detachment of rings. Although the model is barotropic and idealized in other ways, the transport calculations suggest that this exchange mechanism may be important in lateral transport or potential vorticity budget analyses for the Gulf Stream and other oceanic jets. The numerically simulated meandering jet is obtained by allowing a small-amplitude unstable meander to grow until a saturated state occurs. The resulting flow is characterized by finite-amplitude meanders propagating with nearly constant speed, and the results clearly illustrate the stretching and stirring of fluid particles along the edges of the recirculation regions south of the meander crests and north of the troughs. The fluid exchange and resulting transport across boundaries separating regions of predominantly prograde, retrograde, and recirculating motion is quantified using a dynamical systems analysis. The geometrical structures that result from the analysis are shown to be closely correlated with regions of the flow that are susceptible to high potential vorticity dissipation. Moreover, in a related study this analysis has been used to effectively predict the entrainment and detrainment of particles to and from the jet.

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G. P. Können, M. Zaiki, A. P. M. Baede, T. Mikami, P. D. Jones, and T. Tsukahara

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Instrumental observations from Dejima (Nagasaki), Japan, taken under the responsibility of the Dutch, covering the periods 1819–28, 1845–58, and 1871–78, have been recovered. The Dejima series overlaps by six months the modern Nagasaki Observatory series, which covers 1878–present. The recovered data extend the start of the instrumental Japanese series back from 1872 to 1819, leaving major gaps during 1829–44 and 1859–71.

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