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D. Barriopedro
,
P. M. Sousa
,
R. M. Trigo
,
R. García-Herrera
, and
A. M. Ramos
Free access
R. C. Blamey
,
A. M. Ramos
,
R. M. Trigo
,
R. Tomé
, and
C. J. C. Reason

Abstract

A climatology of atmospheric rivers (ARs) impinging on the west coast of South Africa (29°–34.5°S) during the austral winter months (April–September) was developed for the period 1979–2014 using an automated detection algorithm and two reanalysis products as input. The two products show relatively good agreement, with 10–15 persistent ARs (lasting 18 h or longer) occurring on average per winter and nearly two-thirds of these systems occurring poleward of 35°S. The relationship between persistent AR activity and winter rainfall is demonstrated using South African Weather Service rainfall data. Most stations positioned in areas of high topography contained the highest percentage of rainfall contributed by persistent ARs, whereas stations downwind, to the east of the major topographic barriers, had the lowest contributions. Extreme rainfall days in the region are also ranked by their magnitude and spatial extent. The results suggest that although persistent ARs are important contributors to heavy rainfall events, they are not necessarily a prerequisite. It is found that around 70% of the top 50 daily winter rainfall extremes in South Africa were in some way linked to ARs (both persistent and nonpersistent). Overall, the findings of this study support similar investigations on ARs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific.

Full access
Pedro M. Sousa
,
Alexandre M. Ramos
,
Christoph C. Raible
,
M. Messmer
,
Ricardo Tomé
,
Joaquim G. Pinto
, and
Ricardo M. Trigo

Abstract

Moisture transport over the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is an important process governing precipitation distribution and variability over western Europe. To assess its long-term variability, the vertically integrated horizontal water vapor transport (IVT) from a long-term climate simulation spanning the period 850–2100 CE was used. Results show a steady increase in moisture transport toward western Europe since the late-nineteenth century that is projected to expand during the twenty-first century under the RCP8.5 scenario. The projected IVT for 2070–99 significantly exceeds the range given by interannual–interdecadal variability of the last millennium. Changes in IVT are in line with significant increases in tropospheric moisture content, driven by the concurrent rise in surface temperatures associated with the anthropogenic climate trend. On regional scales, recent and projected precipitation changes over the British Isles follow the global positive IVT trend, whereas a robust precipitation decrease over Iberia is identified in the twenty-first century, particularly during autumn. This indicates a possible extension of stable and dry summer conditions and a decoupling between moisture availability and dynamical forcing. The investigation of circulation features reveals a mean poleward shift of moisture corridors and associated atmospheric rivers. In particular, in Iberia, a significant increase in the frequency of dry weather types is observed, accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of wet types. An opposite response is observed over the British Isles. These changes imply a stronger meridional north–south dipole in terms of pressure and precipitation distributions, enhancing the transport toward central Europe rather than to Iberia.

Free access
W. M. Drennan
,
H. C. Graber
,
C. O. Collins III
,
A. Herrera
,
H. Potter
,
R. J. Ramos
, and
N. J. Williams

Abstract

This paper describes the new Extreme Air–Sea Interaction (EASI) buoy designed to measure direct air–sea fluxes, as well as mean properties of the lower atmosphere, upper ocean, and surface waves in high wind and wave conditions. The design of the buoy and its associated deep-water mooring are discussed. The performance of EASI during its 2010 deployment off Taiwan, where three typhoons were encountered, is summarized.

Full access
René Garreaud
,
M Ralph
,
A Wilson
,
A M Ramos
,
J Eiras-Barca
,
H C Steen-Larsen
,
J Rutz
,
C Albano
,
N Tilinina
,
M Warner
,
M Viale
,
R Rondanelli
,
J McPhee
,
R Valenzuela
, and
I Gorodetskaya
Full access
Janneli Lea A. Soria
,
Adam D. Switzer
,
Cesar L. Villanoy
,
Hermann M. Fritz
,
Princess Hope T. Bilgera
,
Olivia C. Cabrera
,
Fernando P. Siringan
,
Yvainne Yacat-Sta. Maria
,
Riovie D. Ramos
, and
Ian Quino Fernandez

Abstract

On 8 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan impacted the Philippines with estimated winds of approximately 314 km h-1 and an associated 5–7-m-high storm surge that struck Tacloban City and the surrounding coast of the shallow, funnel-shaped San Pedro Bay. Typhoon Haiyan killed more than 6,000 people, superseding Tropical Storm Thelma of November 1991 as the deadliest typhoon in the Philippines. Globally, it was the deadliest tropical cyclone since Nargis hit Myanmar in 2008. Here, we use field measurements, eyewitness accounts, and video recordings to corroborate numerical simulations and to characterize the extremely high velocity flooding caused by the Typhoon Haiyan storm surge in both San Pedro Bay and on the more open Pacific Ocean coast. We then compare the surge heights from Typhoon Haiyan with historical records of an unnamed typhoon that took a similar path of destruction in October 1897 (Ty 1897) but which was less intense, smaller, and moved more slowly. The Haiyan surge was about twice the height of the 1897 event in San Pedro Bay, but the two storm surges had similar heights on the open Pacific coast. Until stronger prehistoric events are explored, these two storm surges serve as worst-case scenarios for this region. This study highlights that rare but disastrous events should be carefully evaluated in the context of enhancing community-based disaster risk awareness, planning, and response.

Full access
Travis A. O’Brien
,
Ashley E. Payne
,
Christine A. Shields
,
Jonathan Rutz
,
Swen Brands
,
Christopher Castellano
,
Jiayi Chen
,
William Cleveland
,
Michael J. DeFlorio
,
Naomi Goldenson
,
Irina V. Gorodetskaya
,
Héctor Inda Díaz
,
Karthik Kashinath
,
Brian Kawzenuk
,
Sol Kim
,
Mikhail Krinitskiy
,
Juan M. Lora
,
Beth McClenny
,
Allison Michaelis
,
John P. O’Brien
,
Christina M. Patricola
,
Alexandre M. Ramos
,
Eric J. Shearer
,
Wen-Wen Tung
,
Paul A. Ullrich
,
Michael F. Wehner
,
Kevin Yang
,
Rudong Zhang
,
Zhenhai Zhang
, and
Yang Zhou
Free access
Peter Bissolli
,
Catherine Ganter
,
Tim Li
,
Ademe Mekonnen
,
Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
Francisco Argeñalso
,
P. Asgarzadeh
,
Julian Baez
,
Reuben Barakiza
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
Mikhail Bardin
,
Oliver Bochníček
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Elise Chandler
,
Ladislaus Chang’a
,
Vincent Y. S. Cheng
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Catalina Cortés
,
Felipe Costa
,
A.P.M.A. Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
K. R. Dhurmea
,
A. Diawara
,
Sarah Diouf
,
Dashkhuu Dulamsuren
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Jhan-Carlo Espinoza
,
A. Fazl-Kazem
,
Chris Fenimore
,
Steven Fuhrman
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Samson Hagos
,
Mizuki Hanafusa
,
H. R. Hasannezhad
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
J. A. Ijampy
,
Gyo Soon Im
,
Annie C. Joseph
,
G. Jumaux
,
K. R. Kabidi
,
P-H. Kamsu-Tamo
,
John Kennedy
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Philemon King’uza
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
A. C. Kruger
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
Tsz-Cheung Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Gregor Macara
,
Jostein Mamen
,
José A. Marengo
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
Habiba Mtongori
,
Charles Mutai
,
O. Ndiaye
,
Juan José Nieto
,
Latifa Nyembo
,
Patricia Nying’uro
,
Xiao Pan
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
David Phillips
,
Brad Pugh
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
M. L. Rakotonirina
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
M. Robjhon
,
Camino Rodriguez
,
Guisado Rodriguez
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Benjamin Rösner
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Hirotaka Sato
,
Hitoshi Sato
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Joseph Sebaziga
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Katja Trachte
,
Gerard van der Schrier
,
F. Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Jacqueline M. Spence
,
O. P. Sreejith
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
José L. Stella
,
Kimberly A. Stephenson
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
S. Supari
,
Sahar Tajbakhsh-Mosalman
,
Gerard Tamar
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Asaminew Teshome
,
Wassila M. Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
A. Vazifeh
,
Shunya Wakamatsu
,
Wei Wang
,
Fei Xin
,
F. Zeng
,
Peiqun Zhang
, and
Zhiwei Zhu
Free access
Peter Bissolli
,
Catherine Ganter
,
Ademe Mekonnen
,
Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
,
Zhiwei Zhu
,
A. Abida
,
W. Agyakwah
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Teddy Allen
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
P. Asgarzadeh
,
Grinia Avalos
,
Julian Baez
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
E. Bekele
,
Renato Bertalanic
,
Oliver Bochníček
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Elise Chandler
,
Candice S Charlton
,
Vincent Y. S. Cheng
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Catalina R. Cortés Salazar
,
Felipe Costa
,
Lenka Crhová
,
Ana Paula Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
K. R. Dhurmea
,
Diana A. Domínguez
,
Dashkhuu Dulamsuren
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Jhan-Carlo Espinoza
,
A. Fazl-Kezemi
,
Nava Fedaeff
,
Chris Fenimore
,
Steven Fuhrman
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Samson Hagos
,
Mizuki Hanafusa
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
John Kennedy
,
Sverker Hellström
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
I. A. Ijampy
,
Gyo Soon Im
,
G. Jumaux
,
K. Kabidi
,
Kenneth Kerr
,
Yelena Khalatyan
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Tobias Koch
,
Gerbrand Koren
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
A. C. Kruger
,
Mónika Lakatos
,
Jostein Mamen
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
Tsz-Cheung Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Xuefeng Liu
,
Rui Lu
,
José A. Marengo
,
Mohammadi Marjan
,
Ana E. Martínez
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Mirek Mietus
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
O. Ndiaye
,
Juan J. Nieto
,
Kristin Olafsdottir
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
David Phillips
,
Amos Porat
,
Esteban Rodriguez Guisado
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
Cristina Recalde Coronel
,
Alejandra J. Reyes Kohler
,
M. Robjhon
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Hirotaka Sato
,
Hitoshi Sato
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
Amsari Mudzakir Setiawan
,
F. Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Matthieu Sorel
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Jacqueline M. Spence
,
O. P. Sreejith
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
Kiyotoshi Takahashi
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Wassila M. Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Lidia Trescilo
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
A. Vazifeh
,
Shunya Wakamatsu
,
M. F. Zaheer
,
F. Zeng
, and
Peiqun Zhang
Free access
Tim Li
,
Abdallah Abida
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
Julian Baez
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
Endalkachew Bekele
,
Eric Broedel
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Diego A. Campos Diaz
,
Gilma Carvajal
,
Elise Chandler
,
Vincent. Y. S. Cheng
,
Chulwoon Choi
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Felipe Costa
,
A. P. Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
R. Dhurmea
,
Eliecer A. Díaz
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Bantwale D. Enyew
,
Jhan C. Espinoza
,
Amin Fazl-Kazem
,
Nava Fedaeff
,
Z. Feng
,
Chris Fenimore
,
S. D. Francis
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Indra Gustari
,
S. Hagos
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Rafael Hernández
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
J. A. Ijampy
,
Annie C. Joseph
,
Guillaume Jumaux
,
Khadija Kabidi
,
Johannes W. Kaiser
,
Pierre-Honore Kamsu-Tamo
,
John Kennedy
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Khatuna Kokosadze
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
Andries C. Kruger
,
Nato Kutaladze
,
L. Labbé
,
Mónika Lakatos
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
T. C. Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Andrew D. Magee
,
Jostein Mamen
,
José A. Marengo
,
Dora Marín
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Lia Megrelidze
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Y. Mochizuki
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
uan José Nieto
,
Lamjav Oyunjargal
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
Maria Asuncion Pastor Saavedra
,
Uwe Pfeifroth
,
David Phillips
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
Jayashree V. Revadekar
,
Miliaritiana Robjhon
,
Ernesto Rodriguez Camino
,
Esteban Rodriguez Guisado
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Benjamin Rösner
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Carl J. Schreck III
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
A. Shimpo
,
Fatou Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Jacqueline Spence
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Arne Spitzer
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
José L. Stella
,
Kimberly A. Stephenson
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Wassila Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Dennis Todey
,
Katja Trachte
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Gerard van der Schrier
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
Ahad Vazifeh
,
José Vicencio Veloso
,
Wei Wang
,
Fei Xin
,
Peiqun Zhang
,
Zhiwei Zhu
, and
Jonas Zucule
Free access