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Jason C. Brunner, Steven A. Ackerman, A. Scott Bachmeier, and Robert M. Rabin

Abstract

Early enhanced-V studies used 8-km ground-sampled distance and 30-min temporal-sampling Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared (IR) imagery. In contrast, the ground-sampled distance of current satellite imagery is 1 km for low earth orbit (LEO) satellite IR imagery. This improved spatial resolution is used to detect and investigate quantitative parameters of the enhanced-V feature. One of the goals of this study is to use the 1-km-resolution LEO data to help understand the impact of higher-resolution GOES data (GOES-R) when it becomes available. A second goal is to use the LEO data available now to provide better severe storm information than GOES when it is available. This study investigates the enhanced-V feature observed with 1-km-resolution satellite imagery as an aid for severe weather warning forecasters by comparing with McCann’s enhanced-V study. Therefore, verification statistics such as the probability of detection, false alarm ratio, and critical success index were calculated. Additionally, the importance of upper-level winds to severe weather occurrence will be compared with that of the quantitative parameters of the enhanced-V feature. The main goal is to provide a basis for the development of an automated detection algorithm for enhanced-V features from the results in this study. Another goal is to examine daytime versus nighttime satellite overpass distributions with the enhanced-V feature.

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Timothy J. Schmit, Mathew M. Gunshor, W. Paul Menzel, James J. Gurka, Jun Li, and A. Scott Bachmeier

The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), designated to be one of the instruments on a future Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series, will introduce a new era for U.S. geostationary environmental remote sensing. ABI is slated to be launched on GOES-R in 2012 and will be used for a wide range of weather, oceanographic, climate, and environmental applications. ABI will have more spectral bands (16), faster imaging (enabling more geographical areas to be scanned), and higher spatial resolution (2 km in the infrared and 1–0.5 km in the visible) than the current GOES Imager. The purposes of the selected spectral bands are summarized in this paper. There will also be improved performance with regard to radiometrics and image navigation/registration. ABI will improve all current GOES Imager products and introduce a host of new products. New capabilities will include detecting upper-level SO2 plumes, monitoring plant health on a diurnal time scale, inferring cloud-top phase and particle size and other microphysical properties, and quantifying air quality with improved aerosol and smoke detection. ABI will be operating in concert with the GOES-R high spectral resolution sounder, part of the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES); several products will be improved through the combination of high spatial resolution imager data with collocated high spectral resolution measurements. This paper introduces the proposed ABI spectral bands, discusses the rationale for their selection, and presents simulated ABI examples gleaned from current airborne and satellite instrument data.

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Timothy J. Schmit, Steven J. Goodman, Mathew M. Gunshor, Justin Sieglaff, Andrew K. Heidinger, A. Scott Bachmeier, Scott S. Lindstrom, Amanda Terborg, Joleen Feltz, Kaba Bah, Scott Rudlosky, Daniel T. Lindsey, Robert M. Rabin, and Christopher C. Schmidt

Abstract

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-14 (GOES-14) imager was operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in an experimental rapid scan 1-min mode during parts of the summers of 2012 and 2013. This scan mode, known as the super rapid scan operations for GOES-R (SRSOR), emulates the high-temporal-resolution sampling of the mesoscale region scanning of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the next-generation GOES-R series. This paper both introduces these unique datasets and highlights future satellite imager capabilities. Many phenomena were observed from GOES-14, including fog, clouds, severe storms, fires and smoke (including the California Rim Fire), and several tropical cyclones. In 2012 over 6 days of SRSOR data of Hurricane Sandy were acquired. In 2013, the first two days of SRSOR in June observed the propagation and evolution of a mid-Atlantic derecho. The data from August 2013 were unique in that the GOES imager operated in nearly continuous 1-min mode; prior to this time, the 1-min data were interrupted every 3 h for full disk scans. Used in a number of NOAA test beds and operational centers, including NOAA’s Storm Prediction Center (SPC), the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), the Ocean Prediction Center (OPC), and the National Hurricane Center (NHC), these experimental data prepare users for the next-generation imager, which will be able to routinely acquire mesoscale (1,000 km × 1,000 km) images every 30 s (or two separate locations every minute). Several animations are included, showcasing the rapid change of the many phenomena observed during SRSOR from the GOES-14 imager.

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