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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, and Michael A. Alexander

Abstract

Air–sea interaction over the North Pacific is diagnosed using a simple, local coupled autoregressive model constructed from observed 7-day running-mean sea surface temperature (SST) and 2-m air temperature T A anomalies during the extended winter from the 1° × 1° objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) dataset. Though the model is constructed from 1-week lag statistics, it successfully reproduces the observed anomaly evolution through lead times of 90 days, allowing an estimation of the relative roles of coupling and internal atmospheric and oceanic forcing upon North Pacific SSTs. It is found that east of the date line, SST variability is maintained by, but has little effect on, T A variability. However, in the Kuroshio–Oyashio confluence and extension region, about half of the SST variability is independent of T A, driven instead by SST noise forcing internal to the ocean. Including surface zonal winds in the analysis does not alter this conclusion, suggesting T A adequately represents the atmosphere. Repeating the analysis with the output of two control simulations from a fully coupled global climate model (GCM) differing only in their ocean resolution yields qualitatively similar results. However, for the simulation employing the coarse-resolution (1°) ocean model, all SST variability depends upon T A, apparently caused by a near absence of ocean-induced noise forcing. Collectively, these results imply that a strong contribution from internal oceanic forcing drives SST variability in the Kuroshio–Oyashio region, which may be used as a justification for atmospheric GCM experiments forced with SST anomalies in that region alone. This conclusion is unaffected by increasing the dimensionality of the model to allow for intrabasin interaction.

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A. S. Kabanov, I. P. Mazin, and V. I. Smirnov

Abstract

No abstract available

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A. F. Treshnikov, R. D. Pillsbury, W. D. Nowlin Jr., E. I. Sarukanyan, and N. P. Smirnov

Abstract

During the austral summer of 1974–75 direct measurements of currents in the Drake Passage were made. One data set was collected by the Soviet Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute while another set was collected by Oregon State University as a part of the IDOE/ISOS program. The Soviet data from 61°11′S, 62°31′W beginning on 25 December and ending on 10 January are compared with the U. S. data collected at 60°45′S, 62°15′W. While there is a spatial separation of 44 km and a time separation of 47 days, there are significant similarities in the energy spectra and in the trends of the velocity components. Comparison between moorings at 59°03′S, 63°24′W and 58°46.5′S, 64°24′W yields similar results.

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

Abstract

The local atmospheric response to a realistic shift of the Oyashio Extension SST front in the western North Pacific is analyzed using a high-resolution (HR; 0.25°) version of the global Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5). A northward shift in the SST front causes an atmospheric response consisting of a weak surface wind anomaly but a strong vertical circulation extending throughout the troposphere. In the lower troposphere, most of the SST anomaly–induced diabatic heating is balanced by poleward transient eddy heat and moisture fluxes. Collectively, this response differs from the circulation suggested by linear dynamics, where extratropical SST forcing produces shallow anomalous heating balanced by strong equatorward cold air advection driven by an anomalous, stationary surface low to the east. This latter response, however, is obtained by repeating the same experiment except using a relatively low-resolution (LR; 1°) version of CAM5. Comparison to observations suggests that the HR response is closer to nature than the LR response. Strikingly, HR and LR experiments have almost identical vertical profiles of . However, diagnosis of the diabatic quasigeostrophic vertical pressure velocity (ω) budget reveals that HR has a substantially stronger response, which together with upper-level mean differential thermal advection balances stronger vertical motion. The results herein suggest that changes in transient eddy heat and moisture fluxes are critical to the overall local atmospheric response to Oyashio Front anomalies, which may consequently yield a stronger downstream response. These changes may require the high resolution to be fully reproduced, warranting further experiments of this type with other high-resolution atmosphere-only and fully coupled GCMs.

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Don L. Boyer, Joel Sommeria, Andjelka Srdic Mitrovic, V. K. Chaitanya Pakala, Sergey A. Smirnov, and Dieter Etling

Abstract

Previous laboratory experiments and associated numerical models of laminar flows forced by oscillatory, along-shelf background currents are extended to include some of the effects of boundary-generated turbulence. The experiments are conducted in the 13-m-diameter rotating-flow facility in Grenoble, France. Two pairs of case studies, one at a large forcing velocity (designated as FAST) for which the boundary layers are fully turbulent during part of the flow cycle and one at relatively smaller forcing (SLOW) for which transitional boundary layers are operative at the higher speeds of the background flow, are conducted. Smooth and artificially roughened boundaries are considered, respectively, for each of these pairs. Phase-averaged and time-mean velocity, vertical vorticity, and horizontal divergence fields are found to be qualitatively similar to those of previous laminar experiments. The similarities in the time-mean fields are that (i) within the canyon they are dominated by cyclonic vorticity with maxima centered near the shelf break; (ii) within and in the vicinity of the canyon the general circulation pattern includes a net transport into the canyon through its mouth, a net upwelling in the canyon interior, a transport away from the canyon over the shelf break along both sides of the canyon, and, by inference, a return flow to the deep ocean; and (iii) the interior time-mean flow is characterized by a well-defined coastal current whose axis follows the shelf in the vicinity of the shelf break, with the coast on the right. It is found that the measurements of the characteristic speed of the residual or time-mean flow within the canyon for the transitional and fully turbulent experiments do not follow the scaling law derived earlier for laminar experiments. An alternative scaling analysis for large-Reynolds-number flows is thus derived. Although sufficient numbers of experiments are not available to test the hypothesis fully, the measurements available for the fully turbulent flows are consistent with the theory advanced.

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C. A. Randles, A. M. da Silva, V. Buchard, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, R. Govindaraju, A. Smirnov, B. Holben, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, Y. Shinozuka, and C. J. Flynn

Abstract

The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), updates NASA’s previous satellite-era (1980 onward) reanalysis system to include additional observations and improvements to the Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), Earth system model. As a major step toward a full Integrated Earth Systems Analysis (IESA), in addition to meteorological observations, MERRA-2 now includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from various ground- and space-based remote sensing platforms. Here, in the first of a pair of studies, the MERRA-2 aerosol assimilation is documented, including a description of the prognostic model (GEOS-5 coupled to the GOCART aerosol module), aerosol emissions, and the quality control of ingested observations. Initial validation and evaluation of the analyzed AOD fields are provided using independent observations from ground, aircraft, and shipborne instruments. The positive impact of the AOD assimilation on simulated aerosols is demonstrated by comparing MERRA-2 aerosol fields to an identical control simulation that does not include AOD assimilation. After showing the AOD evaluation, this paper takes a first look at aerosol–climate interactions by examining the shortwave, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect. The companion paper (Part II) evaluates and validates available MERRA-2 aerosol properties not directly impacted by the AOD assimilation (e.g., aerosol vertical distribution and absorption). Importantly, while highlighting the skill of the MERRA-2 aerosol assimilation products, both studies point out caveats that must be considered when using this new reanalysis product for future studies of aerosols and their interactions with weather and climate.

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Nicholas R. Nalli, Everette Joseph, Vernon R. Morris, Christopher D. Barnet, Walter W. Wolf, Daniel Wolfe, Peter J. Minnett, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Miguel A. Izaguirre, Rick Lumpkin, Hua Xie, Alexander Smirnov, Thomas S. King, and Jennifer Wei

This paper gives an overview of a unique set of ship-based atmospheric data acquired over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during boreal spring and summer as part of ongoing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) field campaigns. Following the original 2004 campaign onboard the Ronald H. Brown, AEROSE has operated on a yearly basis since 2006 in collaboration with the NOAA Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) Northeast Extension (PNE). In this work, attention is given to atmospheric soundings of ozone, temperature, water vapor, pressure, and wind obtained from ozonesondes and radiosondes launched to coincide with low earth orbit environmental satellite overpasses [MetOp and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-Train]. Data from the PNE/ AEROSE campaigns are unique in their range of marine meteorological phenomena germane to the satellite missions in question, including dust and smoke outflows from Africa, the Saharan air layer (SAL), and the distribution of tropical water vapor and tropical Atlantic ozone. The multiyear PNE/AEROSE sounding data are valuable as correlative data for prelaunch phase validation of the planned Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and NOAA Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite R series (GOES-R) systems, as well as numerous other science applications. A brief summary of these data, along with an overview of some important science highlights, including meteorological phenomena of general interest, is presented.

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