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Alan Condron
,
Peter Winsor
,
Chris Hill
, and
Dimitris Menemenlis

Abstract

The authors investigate the response of the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) using a regional-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology GCM (MITgcm) and carry out several different 10-yr and 30-yr integrations. At 1/6° (∼18 km) resolution the model resolves the major Arctic transport pathways, including Bering Strait and the Canadian Archipelago. Two main calculations are performed by repeating the wind fields of two contrasting NAO years in each run for the extreme negative and positive NAO phases of 1969 and 1989, respectively. These calculations are compared both with a control run and the compiled observationally based freshwater budget estimate of Serreze et al.

The results show a clear response in the Arctic freshwater budget to NAO forcing, that is, repeat NAO negative wind forcing results in virtually all freshwater being retained in the Arctic, with the bulk of the freshwater content being pooled in the Beaufort gyre. In contrast, repeat NAO positive forcing accelerates the export of freshwater out of the Arctic to the North Atlantic, primarily via Fram Strait (∼900 km3 yr−1) and the Canadian Archipelago (∼500 km3 yr−1), with a total loss in freshwater storage of ∼13 000 km3 (15%) after 10 yr. The large increase in freshwater export through the Canadian Archipelago highlights the important role that this gateway plays in redistributing the freshwater of the Arctic to subpolar seas, by providing a direct pathway from the Arctic basin to the Labrador Sea, Gulf Stream system, and Atlantic Ocean.

The authors discuss the sensitivity of the Arctic Ocean to long-term fixed extreme NAO states and show that the freshwater content of the Arctic is able to be restored to initial values from a depleted freshwater state after ∼20 yr.

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Reginald J. Hill
,
W. Alan Brewer
, and
Sara C. Tucker

Abstract

The NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) has two coherent Doppler lidar systems that have been deployed on board research vessels to obtain data during several experiments. The instruments measure the wind velocity relative to the motion of the lidar; therefore, correction for the motion of the platform is required. This article gives a thorough analysis of the correction for lidar velocity measurements. The analysis is general enough to be applied to Doppler velocity measurements from all monostatic ship- and aircraftborne lidars and radars, and generalization to bistatic systems is achievable. The correction is demonstrated using miniature master-oscillator power-amplifier (mini-MOPA) Doppler velocity data obtained during the Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) experiment.

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Paquita Zuidema
,
Zhujun Li
,
Reginald J. Hill
,
Ludovic Bariteau
,
Bob Rilling
,
Chris Fairall
,
W. Alan Brewer
,
Bruce Albrecht
, and
Jeff Hare

Abstract

Shallow precipitating cumuli within the easterly trades were investigated using shipboard measurements, scanning radar data, and visible satellite imagery from 2 weeks in January 2005 of the Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) experiment. Shipboard rainfall rates of up to 2 mm h−1 were recorded almost daily, if only for 10–30 min typically, almost always from clouds within mesoscale arcs. The precipitating cumuli, capable of reaching above 4 km, cooled surface air by 1–2 K, in all cases lowered surface specific humidities by up to 1.5 g kg−1, reduced surface equivalent potential temperatures by up to 6 K, and were often associated with short-lived increases in wind speed. Upper-level downdrafts were inferred to explain double-lobed moisture and temperature sounding profiles, as well as multiple inversions in wind profiler data. In two cases investigated further, the precipitating convection propagated faster westward than the mean surface wind by about 2–3 m s−1, consistent with a density current of depth ~200 m. In their cold pool recovery zones, the surface air temperatures equilibrated with time to the sea surface temperatures, but the surface air specific humidities stayed relatively constant after initial quick recoveries. This suggested that entrainment of drier air from above fully compensated the moistening from surface latent heat fluxes. Recovery zone surface wind speeds and latent heat fluxes were not higher than environmental values. Nonprecipitating clouds developed after the surface buoyancy had recovered (barring encroachment of other convection). The mesoscale arcs favored atmospheres with higher water vapor paths. These observations differed from those of stratocumulus and deep tropical cumulus cold pools.

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Scott D. Landolt
,
Roy M. Rasmussen
,
Alan J. Hills
,
Warren Underwood
,
Charles A. Knight
,
Albert Jachcik
, and
Andrew Schwartz

Abstract

The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) developed an artificial snow-generation system designed to operate in a laboratory cold chamber for testing aircraft anti-icing fluids under controlled conditions. Flakes of ice are produced by shaving an ice cylinder with a rotating carbide bit; the resulting artificial snow is dispersed by turbulent airflows and falls approximately 2.5 m to the bottom of the device. The resulting fine ice shavings mimic snow in size, distribution, fall velocity, density, and liquid water equivalent (LWE) snowfall rate. The LWE snowfall rate can be controlled using either a mass balance or a precipitation gauge, which measures the snowfall accumulation over time, from which the computer derives the LWE rate. LWE snowfall rates are calculated every 6 s, and the rate the ice cylinder is fed into the carbide bit is continually adjusted to ensure that the LWE snowfall rate matches a user-selected value. The system has been used to generate LWE snowfall rates ranging from 0 to 10 mm h−1 at temperatures from −2 to −30°C and densities of approximately 0.1–0.5 g cm−3. Comparisons of the snow-machine fluid tests with the outdoor fluid tests have shown that the snow machine can mimic natural outdoor rates under a broad range of conditions.

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Britton B. Stephens
,
Matthew C. Long
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Eric A. Kort
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Elliot L. Atlas
,
Stuart Beaton
,
Jonathan D. Bent
,
Nicola J. Blake
,
James F. Bresch
,
Joanna Casey
,
Bruce C. Daube
,
Minghui Diao
,
Ernesto Diaz
,
Heidi Dierssen
,
Valeria Donets
,
Bo-Cai Gao
,
Michelle Gierach
,
Robert Green
,
Justin Haag
,
Matthew Hayman
,
Alan J. Hills
,
Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez
,
Shawn B. Honomichl
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
Jorgen B. Jensen
,
Rong-Rong Li
,
Ian McCubbin
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Scott Nolte
,
Jordan G. Powers
,
Bryan Rainwater
,
Kaylan Randolph
,
Mike Reeves
,
Sue M. Schauffler
,
Katherine Smith
,
Mackenzie Smith
,
Jeff Stith
,
Gregory Stossmeister
,
Darin W. Toohey
, and
Andrew S. Watt

Abstract

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to improve observational constraints on the seasonal exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen with the Southern Ocean. The campaign also included measurements of anthropogenic and marine biogenic reactive gases; high-resolution, hyperspectral ocean color imaging of the ocean surface; and microphysical data relevant for understanding and modeling cloud processes. In each of these components of the ORCAS project, the campaign has significantly expanded the amount of observational data available for this remote region. Ongoing research based on these observations will contribute to advancing our understanding of this climatically important system across a range of topics including carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry and transport, and cloud physics. This article presents an overview of the scientific and methodological aspects of the ORCAS project and highlights early findings.

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Chelsea R. Thompson
,
Steven C. Wofsy
,
Michael J. Prather
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Thomas F. Hanisco
,
Thomas B. Ryerson
,
David W. Fahey
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Charles A. Brock
,
William H. Brune
,
Karl Froyd
,
Joseph M. Katich
,
Julie M. Nicely
,
Jeff Peischl
,
Eric Ray
,
Patrick R. Veres
,
Siyuan Wang
,
Hannah M. Allen
,
Elizabeth Asher
,
Huisheng Bian
,
Donald Blake
,
Ilann Bourgeois
,
John Budney
,
T. Paul Bui
,
Amy Butler
,
Pedro Campuzano-Jost
,
Cecilia Chang
,
Mian Chin
,
Róisín Commane
,
Gus Correa
,
John D. Crounse
,
Bruce Daube
,
Jack E. Dibb
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
James W. Elkins
,
Arlene M. Fiore
,
Clare M. Flynn
,
Hao Guo
,
Samuel R. Hall
,
Reem A. Hannun
,
Alan Hills
,
Eric J. Hintsa
,
Alma Hodzic
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
L. Greg Huey
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Michelle J. Kim
,
Agnieszka Kupc
,
Forrest Lacey
,
Leslie R. Lait
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Junhua Liu
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Simone Meinardi
,
David O. Miller
,
Stephen A. Montzka
,
Fred L. Moore
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Daniel M. Murphy
,
Lee T. Murray
,
Benjamin A. Nault
,
J. Andrew Neuman
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Yenny Gonzalez
,
Andrew Rollins
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Maryann Sargent
,
Gregory Schill
,
Joshua P. Schwarz
,
Jason M. St. Clair
,
Stephen D. Steenrod
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Susan E. Strahan
,
Sarah A. Strode
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Alexander B. Thames
,
Kirk Ullmann
,
Nicholas Wagner
,
Rodney Weber
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Paul O. Wennberg
,
Christina J. Williamson
,
Glenn M. Wolfe
, and
Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

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