Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for

  • Author or Editor: Albert Miller x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
ALBERT MILLER

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

Full access
ALBERT MILLER and JOSEPH VEDERMAN

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

Full access
Albert Miller and Hans Neuberger

Summary

It is shown that the quantitative estimates of the apparent shape of the sky cannot be explained by the geometric and physical conditions of the atmosphere. Observations of the angular elevation of the midpoint of the arc: Horizon-Zenith, show that with increase in cloudiness the sky appears to become flatter. The effect of different cloudtypes on the apparent shape of the sky is explained by the structure of the clouds themselves. However, no significant relation between the ceiling height and sky shape was found.

Aside from the influence of the angular elevation of the terrestrial horizon, an important factor determining our impression of the shape of the sky is the distance between observer and topographic horizon as well as the contour of the foreground, as is shown by special measurements. This conclusion is confirmed by the relation between visual range and the apparent shape of sky as well as measurements through red color filter.

Full access
ALBERT MILLER and DONNELL H. GOULD

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

Full access
Paul Kruger, Gerald Hamada, and Albert Miller

Abstract

Collections of nuclear debris in dry and precipitation fallout samples were made during the winter 1961–2 at Palo Alto and Santa Barbara, Calif., following resumption of nuclear testing by the USSR. The samples were radiochemically analysed for the fallout radionuclides Sr90 and Sr89. The data show the expected increase in radioactivity levels at each location in precipitation following the Soviet detonations. Palo Alto and Santa Barbara, separated by 300 miles, exhibit close similarity in fallout results. Two interesting changes in fallout concentrations were observed which may be attributed to meteorological influences.

Full access

Large-Scale Vertical Motion and Weather in January, 1953

(Mineral Industries Contribution No. 56-32)

Albert Miller and Hans A. Panofsky

This paper summarizes the relationships between weather, moisture and large-scale vertical motion for January, 1953. The moisture parameter was the dew point depression at 850 mb, and vertical velocities at 700 mb were available as computed by three different methods. The probability of clear sky at an individual station varies from five percent for moist, ascending air to 93 percent for dry, descending air. The probability of precipitation for the same conditions varies from 67 percent to 0 percent.

Incidentally, comparison of vertical velocities of various types indicates that nonadiabatic warming at 700 mb is important only for rapid flow from north to south, then averaging 1.3C in 12 hours.

The standard errors of the different techniques of computing vertical motion are estimated to vary from 0.9 to 1.4 cm sec−1.

Full access
James B. Edson, Venkata Jampana, Robert A. Weller, Sebastien P. Bigorre, Albert J. Plueddemann, Christopher W. Fairall, Scott D. Miller, Larry Mahrt, Dean Vickers, and Hans Hersbach

Abstract

This study investigates the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and ocean using data collected from four oceanic field experiments. Direct covariance estimates of momentum fluxes were collected in all four experiments and wind profiles were collected during three of them. The objective of the investigation is to improve parameterizations of the surface roughness and drag coefficient used to estimate the surface stress from bulk formulas. Specifically, the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk flux algorithm is refined to create COARE 3.5. Oversea measurements of dimensionless shear are used to investigate the stability function under stable and convective conditions. The behavior of surface roughness is then investigated over a wider range of wind speeds (up to 25 m s−1) and wave conditions than have been available from previous oversea field studies. The wind speed dependence of the Charnock coefficient α in the COARE algorithm is modified to , where m = 0.017 m−1 s and b = −0.005. When combined with a parameterization for smooth flow, this formulation gives better agreement with the stress estimates from all of the field programs at all winds speeds with significant improvement for wind speeds over 13 m s−1. Wave age– and wave slope–dependent parameterizations of the surface roughness are also investigated, but the COARE 3.5 wind speed–dependent formulation matches the observations well without any wave information. The available data provide a simple reason for why wind speed–, wave age–, and wave slope–dependent formulations give similar results—the inverse wave age varies nearly linearly with wind speed in long-fetch conditions for wind speeds up to 25 m s−1.

Full access
James B. Edson, Venkata Jampana, Robert A. Weller, Sebastien P. Bigorre, Albert J. Plueddemann, Christopher W. Fairall, Scott D. Miller, Larry Mahrt, Dean Vickers, and Hans Hersbach
Full access
Arthur J. Miller, Michael A. Alexander, George J. Boer, Fei Chai, Ken Denman, David J. Erickson III, Robert Frouin, Albert J. Gabric, Edward A. Laws, Marlon R. Lewis, Zhengyu Liu, Ragu Murtugudde, Shoichiro Nakamoto, Douglas J. Neilson, Joel R. Norris, J. Carter Ohlmann, R. Ian Perry, Niklas Schneider, Karen M. Shell, and Axel Timmermann
Full access
William J. Merryfield, Johanna Baehr, Lauriane Batté, Emily J. Becker, Amy H. Butler, Caio A. S. Coelho, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Daniela I. V. Domeisen, Laura Ferranti, Tatiana Ilynia, Arun Kumar, Wolfgang A. Müller, Michel Rixen, Andrew W. Robertson, Doug M. Smith, Yuhei Takaya, Matthias Tuma, Frederic Vitart, Christopher J. White, Mariano S. Alvarez, Constantin Ardilouze, Hannah Attard, Cory Baggett, Magdalena A. Balmaseda, Asmerom F. Beraki, Partha S. Bhattacharjee, Roberto Bilbao, Felipe M. de Andrade, Michael J. DeFlorio, Leandro B. Díaz, Muhammad Azhar Ehsan, Georgios Fragkoulidis, Sam Grainger, Benjamin W. Green, Momme C. Hell, Johnna M. Infanti, Katharina Isensee, Takahito Kataoka, Ben P. Kirtman, Nicholas P. Klingaman, June-Yi Lee, Kirsten Mayer, Roseanna McKay, Jennifer V. Mecking, Douglas E. Miller, Nele Neddermann, Ching Ho Justin Ng, Albert Ossó, Klaus Pankatz, Simon Peatman, Kathy Pegion, Judith Perlwitz, G. Cristina Recalde-Coronel, Annika Reintges, Christoph Renkl, Balakrishnan Solaraju-Murali, Aaron Spring, Cristiana Stan, Y. Qiang Sun, Carly R. Tozer, Nicolas Vigaud, Steven Woolnough, and Stephen Yeager

Abstract

Weather and climate variations on subseasonal to decadal time scales can have enormous social, economic, and environmental impacts, making skillful predictions on these time scales a valuable tool for decision-makers. As such, there is a growing interest in the scientific, operational, and applications communities in developing forecasts to improve our foreknowledge of extreme events. On subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) time scales, these include high-impact meteorological events such as tropical cyclones, extratropical storms, floods, droughts, and heat and cold waves. On seasonal to decadal (S2D) time scales, while the focus broadly remains similar (e.g., on precipitation, surface and upper-ocean temperatures, and their effects on the probabilities of high-impact meteorological events), understanding the roles of internal variability and externally forced variability such as anthropogenic warming in forecasts also becomes important. The S2S and S2D communities share common scientific and technical challenges. These include forecast initialization and ensemble generation; initialization shock and drift; understanding the onset of model systematic errors; bias correction, calibration, and forecast quality assessment; model resolution; atmosphere–ocean coupling; sources and expectations for predictability; and linking research, operational forecasting, and end-user needs. In September 2018 a coordinated pair of international conferences, framed by the above challenges, was organized jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP). These conferences surveyed the state of S2S and S2D prediction, ongoing research, and future needs, providing an ideal basis for synthesizing current and emerging developments in these areas that promise to enhance future operational services. This article provides such a synthesis.

Free access