Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 59 items for

  • Author or Editor: Alexander V. Ryzhkov x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

The impact of beam broadening on the quality of radar polarimetric data in the presence of nonuniform beam filling (NBF) is examined both theoretically and experimentally. Cross-beam gradients of radar reflectivity Z, differential reflectivity Z DR, and differential phase ΦDP within the radar resolution volume may produce significant biases of Z DR, ΦDP, and the cross-correlation coefficient ρ hv. These biases increase with range as a result of progressive broadening of the radar beam. They are also larger at shorter radar wavelengths and wider antenna beams.

Simple analytical formulas are suggested for estimating the NBF-induced biases from the measured vertical and horizontal gradients of Z, Z DR, and ΦDP. Analysis of polarimetric data collected by the KOUN Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) demonstrates that frequently observed perturbations of the radial ΦDP profiles and radially oriented “valleys” of ρ hv depression can be qualitatively and quantitatively explained using the suggested NBF model.

Full access
Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

A simple model of the radar scattering by atmospheric particles is used to interpret all elements of the covariance scattering matrix. The components of the covariance scattering matrix and corresponding polarimetric variables are expressed via a limited number of integral parameters that characterize distributions of sizes, shapes, and orientations of meteorological scatterers.

The co–cross-polar correlation coefficients ρ xh and ρ measured in the horizontal–vertical linear polarization basis are the major focus of this study. It is shown that the magnitudes of both coefficients are almost entirely determined by orientation of particles and do not depend on particle sizes and shapes. The phases of these coefficients can be used to detect the presence of melting hail or wet snow in the radar resolution volume.

A model of the mean canting angle of raindrops varying along a propagation path is developed to examine effects of propagation on the depolarization variables such as ρ xh, ρ , and linear depolarization ratio. Analysis shows that depolarization variables are very sensitive to the mean canting angle averaged over a long propagation path.

Full access
Pamela L. Heinselman and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

This study describes, illustrates, and validates hail detection by a simplified version of the National Severe Storms Laboratory’s fuzzy logic polarimetric hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA). The HCA uses four radar variables: reflectivity, differential reflectivity, cross-correlation coefficient, and “reflectivity texture” to classify echoes as rain mixed with hail, ground clutter–anomalous propagation, biological scatterers (insects, birds, and bats), big drops, light rain, moderate rain, and heavy rain. Diagnostic capabilities of HCA, such as detection of hail, are illustrated for a variety of storm environments using polarimetric radar data collected mostly during the Joint Polarimetric Experiment (JPOLE; 28 April–13 June 2003). Hail classification with the HCA is validated using 47 rain and hail reports collected by storm-intercept teams during JPOLE. For comparison purposes, probability of hail output from the Next-Generation Weather Radar Hail Detection Algorithm (HDA) is validated using the same ground truth. The anticipated polarimetric upgrade of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler network drives this direct comparison of performance. For the four examined cases, contingency table statistics show that the HCA outperforms the HDA. The superior performance of the HCA results primary from the algorithm’s lack of false alarms compared to the HDA. Statistical significance testing via bootstrapping indicates that differences in the probability of detection and critical success index between the algorithms are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, whereas differences in the false alarm rate and Heidke skill score are statistically significant at the 90% confidence level.

Full access
Scott E. Giangrande and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

The quality of polarimetric radar rainfall estimation is investigated for a broad range of distances from the polarimetric prototype of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D). The results of polarimetric echo classification have been integrated into the study to investigate the performance of radar rainfall estimation contingent on hydrometeor type. A new method for rainfall estimation that capitalizes on the results of polarimetric echo classification (EC method) is suggested. According to the EC method, polarimetric rainfall relations are utilized if the radar resolution volume is filled with rain (or rain and hail), and multiple R(Z) relations are used for different types of frozen hydrometeors. The intercept parameters in the R(Z) relations for each class are determined empirically from comparisons with gauges. It is shown that the EC method exhibits better performance than the conventional WSR-88D algorithm with a reduction by a factor of 1.5–2 in the rms error of 1-h rainfall estimates up to distances of 150 km from the radar.

Full access
Alexander V. Ryzhkov and Dusan S. Zrnić

Abstract

Simultaneous transmission and reception of horizontally and vertically polarized waves is a preferable choice technique for dual-polarization weather radar. One of the consequences of such a choice is possible cross-coupling between orthogonally polarized waves. Cross-coupling depends on depolarizing properties of propagation media, and it is usually negligible in rain because the net mean canting angle of raindrops is close to zero.

Snow crystals at the tops of thunderstorm clouds are often canted in the presence of strong electric fields and produce noticeable cross-coupling between radar signals at horizontal and vertical polarizations if both signals are transmitted and received simultaneously. As a result, peculiar-looking radial signatures of differential reflectivity Z DR and differential phase ΦDP are commonly observed in the crystal regions of thunderstorms.

The paper presents examples of strong depolarization in oriented crystals from the data collected by the polarimetric prototype of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) and a theoretical model that explains the results of measurements. It is shown that the sign and magnitude of the Z DR and ΦDP signatures strongly depend on the orientation of crystals and a system differential phase on transmission.

Full access
Matthew R. Kumjian and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

The dual-polarization radar variables are especially sensitive to the microphysical processes of melting and size sorting of precipitation particles. In deep convective storms, polarimetric measurements of such processes can provide information about the airflow in and around the storm that may be used to elucidate storm behavior and evolution. Size sorting mechanisms include differential sedimentation, vertical transport, strong rotation, and wind shear. In particular, winds that veer with increasing height typical of supercell environments cause size sorting that is manifested as an enhancement of differential reflectivity (Z DR) along the right or inflow edge of the forward-flank downdraft precipitation echo, which has been called the Z DR arc signature. In some cases, this shear profile can be augmented by the storm inflow. It is argued that the magnitude of this enhancement is related to the low-level storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH) in the storm inflow.

To test this hypothesis, a simple numerical model is constructed that calculates trajectories for raindrops based on their individual sizes, which allows size sorting to occur. The modeling results indicate a strong positive correlation between the maximum Z DR in the arc signature and the low-level SRH, regardless of the initial drop size distribution aloft. Additional observational evidence in support of the conceptual model is presented. Potential changes in the Z DR arc signature as the supercell evolves and the low-level mesocyclone occludes are described.

Full access
Alexander V. Ryzhkov and Dusan S. Zrnić

Abstract

The authors contrast rainfall in two Oklahoma squall lines: one with deep convection occurred in the spring and the other with shallower convection in the winter. Both passed over a micronetwork of densely spaced rain gauges and were observed with the National Severe Storm Laboratory's polarimetric weather radar. Polarimetric measurements reveal differences in storm structure that in turn imply that microphysical processes caused the drop size distributions to be quite distinct for the two events. In the winter squall line the conventional R(Z) algorithm for estimating rainfall fails badly, whereas in the summer squall line it performs well. The method based on specific differential phase measurements, however, yields a very good match between radar-derived areal precipitation amount and rain depth obtained from the micronetwork of densely located rain gauges for both events.

Full access
Alexander V. Ryzhkov and Dusan S. Zrnic

Abstract

Rainfall estimation from specific differential phases in meteorological situations with significant anomalous propagation (AP) is discussed. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between horizontally and vertically polarized backscatter signals and local variability of the total differential phase can be good identifiers of ground clutter–contaminated data. Further, it is suggested how to estimate rainfall in regions of ground clutter caused by AP.

Full access
Scott E. Giangrande and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

In the presence of partial beam blockage (PBB), weather radar measurements can experience significant bias that directly compromises the accuracy of the hydrologic applications. Techniques for the calibration of the radar reflectivity factor Z and differential reflectivity Z DR, measured with dual-polarization weather radars in the presence of partial beam obstruction, are examined in this paper.

The proposed Z DR calibration technique utilizes radar measurements of Z DR in light rain and dry aggregated snow at unblocked and blocked elevations. This calibration technique was tested for the National Severe Storms Laboratory’s (NSSL’s) Cimarron radar that suffers from PBB, and a polarimetric prototype of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) that does not experience PBB. Results indicate that the Z DR bias that is associated with PBB can be calibrated with an accuracy of 0.2–0.3 dB, provided that the dataset is sufficiently large.

Calibration of Z in the presence of PBB is based on the idea of self-consistency among Z, Z DR, and the specific differential phase K DP in rain. The self-consistency calibration of Z from the Cimarron radar is performed following an area–time integral method. Integration is partitioned into small azimuthal sectors to assess the azimuthal modulation of the Z bias. The suggested technique is validated by direct comparisons of reflectivity factors that are measured by the Cimarron radar and the unobstructed operational WSR-88D radar. It is shown that the azimuthal modulation of Z that is caused by PBB is well captured, and the accuracy of the Z calibration is within 2–3 dB.

Full access
Dušan S. Zrnić and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

Chaff contaminates estimates of precipitation amounts; hence, it is important to remove (or censor) its presence from the fields of radar reflectivity. It is demonstrated that efficient and direct identification of chaff is possible with a polarimetric radar. Specifically considered are the horizontal and vertical polarization basis and covariances of corresponding returned signals. Pertinent polarimetric variables are the copolar correlation coefficient, differential reflectivity, and the linear depolarization ratio. Two models are used to compute the expected values of these variables. In one, chaff is approximated with a Hertzian dipole and, in the other, with a thin wire antenna. In these models chaff is assumed to have a uniform distribution of flutter angles (angle between the horizontal plane and chaff axis). The two models produce nearly equivalent results. Also shown are polarimetric signatures of chaff observed in the presence of precipitation. Inferences about chaff's orientation are made from comparisons between measured and observed differential reflectivity and the cross-correlation coefficient.

Full access