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Alfred K. Blackadar
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Alfred K. Blackadar

A sharp maximum is frequently observed at night in the wind speed profile below 3000 ft. The wind speed maximum is usually at the top of the nocturnal inversion, is supergeostrophic, and is often associated with extremely large values of wind shear at low levels.

It is shown that the characteristic velocity profile tends to promote an orderly growth of the nocturnal inversion. The supergeostrophic wind speeds suggest that an inertia oscillation is induced when the constraint imposed by the daytime mixing is released by the initiation of an inversion at about the time of sunset.

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Alfred K. Blackadar

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Alfred K. Blackadar

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The energy equations applicable to the mean state of a turbulent fluid are reviewed, and a concept of the relative flux of turbulent kinetic energy is defined. It is shown that such irreversible processes as the decay of mean motion into turbulence, the relative flux of turbulent energy, and eddy diffusion are not governed by the classical laws of thermodynamics, but properly belong in the field of eddy thermodynamics proposed by Richardson. It is found that there exists an eddy analogue of the entropy which is a function of the eddy energy and partial densities of the various constituents of a fluid, and which observations suggest is consistently created by irreversible phenomena of turbulence. This property of eddy entropy is incorporated into a statement which is called the second law of eddy thermodynamics.

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Alfred K. Blackadar
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Alfred K. Blackadar
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Alfred K. Blackadar

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John F. Pohle, Alfred K. Blackadar, and Hans A. Panofsky

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