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Anthony Bucholtz
,
Robert T. Bluth
,
Ben Kelly
,
Scott Taylor
,
Keir Batson
,
Anthony W. Sarto
,
Tim P. Tooman
, and
Robert F. McCoy Jr.

Abstract

Measurements of solar and infrared irradiance by instruments rigidly mounted to an aircraft have historically been plagued by the introduction of offsets and fluctuations into the data that are solely due to the pitch and roll movements of the aircraft. The Stabilized Radiometer Platform (STRAP) was developed to address this problem. Mounted on top of an aircraft and utilizing a self-contained, coupled Inertial Navigation System–GPS, STRAP actively keeps a set of uplooking radiometers horizontally level to within ±0.02° for aircraft pitch and roll angles of up to approximately ±10°. The system update rate of 100 Hz compensates for most pitch and roll changes experienced in normal flight and in turbulence. STRAP was mounted on a Twin Otter aircraft and its performance evaluated during normal flight and during a series of flight maneuvers designed to test the accuracy, range, and robustness of the platform. The measurements from an identical pair of solar pyranometers—one mounted on STRAP and the other rigidly mounted nearby directly to the aircraft—are compared to illustrate the accuracy and capability of the new platform. Results show that STRAP can keep radiometers level within the specified pitch and roll range, that it is able to recover from flight maneuvers outside of this range, and that it greatly increases the quantity of useful radiometer data from any given flight. Of particular note, STRAP now allows accurate measurements of the downwelling solar irradiance during spiral ascents or descents of the aircraft, greatly expanding the utility of aircraft radiometer measurements.

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James R. Campbell
,
Cui Ge
,
Jun Wang
,
Ellsworth J. Welton
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
Elizabeth A. Reid
,
Boon Ning Chew
,
Soo-Chin Liew
,
Santo V. Salinas
,
Simone Lolli
,
Kathleen C. Kaku
,
Peng Lynch
,
Mastura Mahmud
,
Maznorizan Mohamad
, and
Brent N. Holben

ABSTRACT

This work describes some of the most extensive ground-based observations of the aerosol profile collected in Southeast Asia to date, highlighting the challenges in simulating these observations with a mesoscale perspective. An 84-h WRF Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) mesoscale simulation of smoke particle transport at Kuching, Malaysia, in the southern Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia is evaluated relative to a unique collection of continuous ground-based lidar, sun photometer, and 4-h radiosonde profiling. The period was marked by relatively dry conditions, allowing smoke layers transported to the site unperturbed by wet deposition to be common regionally. The model depiction is reasonable overall. Core thermodynamics, including land/sea-breeze structure, are well resolved. Total model smoke extinction and, by proxy, mass concentration are low relative to observation. Smoke emissions source products are likely low because of undersampling of fires in infrared sun-synchronous satellite products, which is exacerbated regionally by endemic low-level cloud cover. Differences are identified between the model mass profile and the lidar profile, particularly during periods of afternoon convective mixing. A static smoke mass injection height parameterized for this study potentially influences this result. The model does not resolve the convective mixing of aerosol particles into the lower free troposphere or the enhancement of near-surface extinction from nighttime cooling and hygroscopic effects.

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Andrew M. Vogelmann
,
Greg M. McFarquhar
,
John A. Ogren
,
David D. Turner
,
Jennifer M. Comstock
,
Graham Feingold
,
Charles N. Long
,
Haflidi H. Jonsson
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Don R. Collins
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Hermann Gerber
,
R. Paul Lawson
,
Roy K. Woods
,
Elisabeth Andrews
,
Hee-Jung Yang
,
J. Christine Chiu
,
Daniel Hartsock
,
John M. Hubbe
,
Chaomei Lo
,
Alexander Marshak
,
Justin W. Monroe
,
Sally A. McFarlane
,
Beat Schmid
,
Jason M. Tomlinson
, and
Tami Toto

A first-of-a-kind, extended-term cloud aircraft campaign was conducted to obtain an in situ statistical characterization of continental boundary layer clouds needed to investigate cloud processes and refine retrieval algorithms. Coordinated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign operated over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site from 22 January to 30 June 2009, collecting 260 h of data during 59 research flights. A comprehensive payload aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft measured cloud microphysics, solar and thermal radiation, physical aerosol properties, and atmospheric state parameters. Proximity to the SGP's extensive complement of surface measurements provides ancillary data that support modeling studies and facilitates evaluation of a variety of surface retrieval algorithms. The five-month duration enabled sampling a range of conditions associated with the seasonal transition from winter to summer. Although about twothirds of the flights during which clouds were sampled occurred in May and June, boundary layer cloud fields were sampled under a variety of environmental and aerosol conditions, with about 77% of the cloud flights occurring in cumulus and stratocumulus. Preliminary analyses illustrate use of these data to analyze aerosol– cloud relationships, characterize the horizontal variability of cloud radiative impacts, and evaluate surface-based retrievals. We discuss how an extended-term campaign requires a simplified operating paradigm that is different from that used for typical, short-term, intensive aircraft field programs.

Full access
Leila M. V. Carvalho
,
Gert-Jan Duine
,
Craig Clements
,
Stephan F. J. De Wekker
,
Harindra J. S. Fernando
,
David R. Fitzjarrald
,
Robert G. Fovell
,
Charles Jones
,
Zhien Wang
,
Loren White
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Matthew J. Brewer
,
William Brown
,
Matt Burkhart
,
Edward Creegan
,
Min Deng
,
Marian de Orla-Barile
,
David Emmitt
,
Steve Greco
,
Terry Hock
,
James Kasic
,
Kiera Malarkey
,
Griffin Modjeski
,
Steven Oncley
,
Alison Rockwell
,
Daisuke Seto
,
Callum Thompson
, and
Holger Vömel

Abstract

Coastal Santa Barbara is among the most exposed communities to wildfire hazards in Southern California. Downslope, dry, and gusty windstorms are frequently observed on the south-facing slopes of the Santa Ynez Mountains that separate the Pacific Ocean from the Santa Ynez valley. These winds, known as “Sundowners,” peak after sunset and are strong throughout the night and early morning. The Sundowner Winds Experiment (SWEX) was a field campaign funded by the National Science Foundation that took place in Santa Barbara, California, between 1 April and 15 May 2022. It was a collaborative effort of 10 institutions to advance understanding and predictability of Sundowners, while providing rich datasets for developing new theories of downslope windstorms in coastal environments with similar geographic and climatic characteristics. Sundowner spatiotemporal characteristics are controlled by complex interactions among atmospheric processes occurring upstream (Santa Ynez valley), and downstream due to the influence of a cool and stable marine boundary layer. SWEX was designed to enhance spatial measurements to resolve local circulations and vertical structure from the surface to the midtroposphere and from the Santa Barbara Channel to the Santa Ynez valley. This article discusses how SWEX brought cutting-edge science and the strengths of multiple ground-based and mobile instrument platforms to bear on this important problem. Among them are flux towers, mobile and stationary lidars, wind profilers, ceilometers, radiosondes, and an aircraft equipped with three lidars and a dropsonde system. The unique features observed during SWEX using this network of sophisticated instruments are discussed here.

Open access
William L. Smith Jr.
,
Christy Hansen
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Bruce E. Anderson
,
Matthew Beckley
,
Joseph G. Corbett
,
Richard I. Cullather
,
Keith M. Hines
,
Michelle Hofton
,
Seiji Kato
,
Dan Lubin
,
Richard H. Moore
,
Michal Segal Rosenhaimer
,
Jens Redemann
,
Sebastian Schmidt
,
Ryan Scott
,
Shi Song
,
John D. Barrick
,
J. Bryan Blair
,
David H. Bromwich
,
Colleen Brooks
,
Gao Chen
,
Helen Cornejo
,
Chelsea A. Corr
,
Seung-Hee Ham
,
A. Scott Kittelman
,
Scott Knappmiller
,
Samuel LeBlanc
,
Norman G. Loeb
,
Colin Miller
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Rabindra Palikonda
,
David Rabine
,
Elizabeth A. Reid
,
Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge
,
Peter Pilewskie
,
Yohei Shinozuka
,
Douglas Spangenberg
,
Paul Stackhouse
,
Patrick Taylor
,
K. Lee Thornhill
,
David van Gilst
, and
Edward Winstead

Abstract

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) acquired unique aircraft data on atmospheric radiation and sea ice properties during the critical late summer to autumn sea ice minimum and commencement of refreezing. The C-130 aircraft flew 15 missions over the Beaufort Sea between 4 and 24 September 2014. ARISE deployed a shortwave and longwave broadband radiometer (BBR) system from the Naval Research Laboratory; a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) from the University of Colorado Boulder; the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) from the NASA Ames Research Center; cloud microprobes from the NASA Langley Research Center; and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) laser altimeter system from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These instruments sampled the radiant energy exchange between clouds and a variety of sea ice scenarios, including prior to and after refreezing began. The most critical and unique aspect of ARISE mission planning was to coordinate the flight tracks with NASA Cloud and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensor observations in such a way that satellite sensor angular dependence models and derived top-of-atmosphere fluxes could be validated against the aircraft data over large gridbox domains of order 100–200 km. This was accomplished over open ocean, over the marginal ice zone (MIZ), and over a region of heavy sea ice concentration, in cloudy and clear skies. ARISE data will be valuable to the community for providing better interpretation of satellite energy budget measurements in the Arctic and for process studies involving ice–cloud–atmosphere energy exchange during the sea ice transition period.

Full access